You have two questions:
- How to form an overall measure of job satisfaction?
- How to examine group differences on the score that you create?
Forming the overall measure of job satisfaction
If you are using an established measure of job satisfaction, then the test manual should tell you how you should calculate the overall job satisfaction score.
If the measure of job satisfaction is novel, there are multiple ways of forming an overall job satisfaction score where the individual items ask participants about facets of job satisfaction.
In my experience, when you perform a factor analysis on a job satisfaction measure, the first unrotated factor explains a massive proportion of variance relative to any subsequent factors. As such, whether you run a factor analysis and save the first factor or whether you just take the mean of the items all measuring facet satisfaction, you are likely to be left with a very similar measure of overall job satisfaction (I'd expect correlations between the two forms to be in the r > .95 range). Of course you could and should test this idea in your data.
More importantly, there are general issues of validity. If you don't care too much about precision in measurement, then I would think that the first factor saved score or a mean of job satisfaction items would be a reasonable approximation to a measure of overall job satisfaction.
However, if you care about precision, you would want to engage with debates in the literature about whether overall job satisfaction should be asked directly rather than extracted from facet level measures. I discuss this a little more here.
Job satisfaction by group
Once you have your overall measure of job satisfaction, the task of comparing groups might look like this:
type of organisation,
job status, and
gender, independent groups t tests would work
- For age group, you could do an ANOVA with polynomial contrasts. In particular, if their is an effect of age it often has both linear and quadratic components. It would be better if you had a more granular measure of age.
I received the following comment on my blog, where you wrote:
However, I am still confused of how my supervisor told me to use
factor analysis but you seem to say that using the t test is enough.
Can you please advise me further?
I am saying that you have two questions. The factor analysis pertains only to the first question of how to construct the overall measure of job satisfaction. After you have created that overall measure, whether it is informed by factor analysis or not, the tests of group differences are straightforward.