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My research topic is based on comparison of the effects of traditional and modern teaching techniques on students’ attitude and achievement in science.

I followed a pretest-posttest experimental design, in which one control group and one experimental group were involved.

Pretest and posttest used are different from each other.

I also administered 2 scales -- science attitude scale and modern teaching technique attitude scale -- at pre- and posttest stages.

Hypotheses formulated are as follows:

  1. There is no significant difference between the pre-test mean scores of students in the control group and experimental group.
  2. There is no significant difference between the post-test mean scores of students in the control group and experimental group.
  3. There is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test mean scores of students in the control group.
  4. There is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test mean scores of students in the experimental group.
  5. There is no significant difference between the mean attitude scores of students in the control group and experimental group at pre-test stage.
  6. There is no significant difference between the mean attitude scores of students in the control group and experimental group at post-test stage.
  7. There is no significant difference between the mean attitude scores of students in the control group at pre-test and post-test stages.
  8. There is no significant difference between the mean attitude scores of students in the experimental group at pre-test and post-test stages.

I am not sure about the data analysis techniques that should be used for testing the above mentioned hypothesis.

I also have certain doubts regarding the following:

  1. Can I use t-test for comparing the groups’ mean test and attitude scores?

  2. Can ANOVA be used in any of the hypothesis?

  3. I have read in a number of books to use ANCOVA in order to make it sure that whatever changes observed in students’ achievement and attitude are due to a particular teaching technique. If ANCOVA to be used, then what constitute the covariates in my topic? How many covariates are considered to be good for such experimental designs?

  4. If ANCOVA to be used, then how to go about it? How to do it in SPSS?

Please help me as I have less time for doing data analysis?

Any suitable example related to my research design will be of great help.

I shall be highly grateful for your suggestions.

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(i) Hypotheses do not refer to "significant" differences: they refer to actual differences. (ii) I hate to say this, but it bears repeating even when nothing can be done about it: the time to choose the data analysis techniques is during the design of the experiment, before carrying it out. If this research is being done under the supervision of a mentor or teacher, they ought to have known that. In fact, maybe they did and they have some particular techniques in mind--or perhaps the techniques are even detailed in the research planning documents. Ask them! –  whuber Sep 20 '11 at 16:57
2  
I don't want to discourage you, but usually more specific questions have better chance for answer. This seems more like "Do my job for me!" rather than "Can you give me a hand with this?". –  mbq Sep 20 '11 at 17:02
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