What fields of science (social or physical) use modelling for time-series analysis? In particular, time-series that cannot be replicated? Two examples that I can think of are climate modelling, and econometrics. Are there any others?
I am asking because I am doing research on model independence in climate science, and am looking for references outside my field. I have had a look around, and couldn't find many, and was hoping to tap the knowledge resource here. I am reasonably sure that there is no "long list" to be requested, rather there are a few smallish research areas doing this kind of modelling.
Clarification: By "cannot be replicated", I mean that only one time series can be relevant. eg. in climate science, we have only one earth, with which to validate the model. (in econometrics, there may be cases of both repeatable and not repeatable time-series)