# Comparing two groups: one-way ANOVA vs. regression analysis with dummy

I am a bit puzzled with the following issue: the outcome of one-way ANOVA test shows that the mean difference of variable y between two country samples is statistically significant. However, after pooling the two samples together and running an OLS regression with y as dependent variable, some other IV and by including a country dummy, the effect of the country dummy appears to be statistically insignificant, implying that there is no country-related effect on dependent variable y. Any explanation for this outcome?

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Was the other IV included in the ANOVA? –  gung Aug 3 '12 at 18:53

If I'm right in guessing that the other IV was not included in the ANOVA, then the most likely reason is that the two countries differed on the other IV, and that the countries only look 'significant' if the other IV is omitted. I wonder if the other IV is 'significant'? With sufficient confounding, it may not be. One last (but I think unlikely) possibility is that when you added the IV you lost 1 degree of freedom, and so if the IV were totally unrelated to the response, you would have lost a trivial amount of statistical power.

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Thanks a lot for your reply!Actually yes, I did not include the other IVs (sorry I was no clear before, I have various IVs;I have also created some interaction terms between country dummy and some of the IVs to detect country-related differences for specific predictors) in the ANOVA test actually. Some of the IVs are significant in the regression analysis. However, after some experiments with the IVs in the model, I noticed that in some cases the country dummy may remain significant, but with the opposite sign... –  Bill718 Aug 3 '12 at 19:28

the effect of the country dummy appears to be statistically insignificant, implying that there is no country-related effect on dependent variable y.

That is not what a non-significant result implies. In fact, unless the means on Y for the two countries were identical (extremely unlikely), you know that there was a difference in your sample. And the chance that there was a 0 difference in the population is infinitesimal.

A non-significant result does not imply anything. It simply says that, if the difference in the population were 0, you could get a test statistic this high more than 5% of the time.

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Sound clear!!appreciated! –  Bill718 Aug 4 '12 at 1:02