I want to simulate a data set with similar covariance structure as my observed data (which is a SNP by gene p-value matrix, dim ~600k*8368), and have calculated a covariance matrix (dimensions 8368*8368). So far I've tried two approaches to simulating data (all in R):
The problem is that the resulting covariance structure in my simulated data is very different from the original supplied covariance vector (but the code used is accurate as far as I can tell). Lets just look at some of the values:
> cov8[1:4,1:4] # covariance of simulated data X1 X2 X3 X4 X1 34515296.00 99956.69 369538.1 1749086.6 X2 99956.69 34515296.00 2145289.9 -624961.1 X3 369538.08 2145289.93 34515296.0 -163716.5 X4 1749086.62 -624961.09 -163716.5 34515296.0 > CEUcovar[1:4,1:4] [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [1,] 0.1873402987 0.001837229 0.0009009272 0.010324521 [2,] 0.0018372286 0.188665853 0.0124216535 -0.001755035 [3,] 0.0009009272 0.012421654 0.1867835412 -0.000142395 [4,] 0.0103245214 -0.001755035 -0.0001423950 0.192883488
So the distribution of the observed covariance is very narrow compared to the simulated data.
None of the eigenvalues of the observed covariance matrix are negative, and it appears to be a positive definite matrix. Here is what I did to create the simulated data (very straightforward):
Chol <- chol(CEUcovar) Z <- matrix(rnorm(20351 * 8368), 8368) X <- t(Chol) %*% Z sample8 <- data.frame(as.matrix(t(X))) > dim(sample8)  20351 8368 cov8=cov(sample8,method='spearman')
(earlier I've also tried:
sample8 <- rmvnorm(1000,mean=rep(0,ncol(CEUcovar)), sigma=CEUcovar, method="eigen") with as 'bad' results, much larger covariance values in the simulated data)
- Any ideas of WHY the simulated data have such a different covariance?
- Any experience with similar issues? Would be happy to supply the covariance matrix if anyone wants to give it a try.
- Is this an impossible task statistically?
- Any suggestions? Anything apparent that I left our or neglected?
I am aware that my supplied covariance matrix might differ from the true underlying covariance of the population. But my goal is to simulate a random data that captures (as much as possible) of the covariance that this observed data has, no matter how weird that covariance is.
Clarification - my supplied covariance vector has values in [-10^-2, 0.3] while the resulting data has covariance of [-800000,5000000]. This is not what I am expecting. I wonder why this is the case, and how this might be explained.
Any advice would be highly appreciated.