Tests for a medical condition can be classified into two categories:
- Tests on an asymptomatic (no reason to suspect condition) patient where the result is a circumstantial finding; and
- Tests on a symptomatic (prior reason to suspect condition) patient where the result is a diagnostic finding.
In the first case, the emphasis of any test should be on maximum specificity. For the second case, the emphasis of any test should be on maximum sensitivity.
Intuitively, I understand why. However, can somebody give me a formal run-through, preferably from a Bayesian perspective, as to why this is the case?
Slide presentation, "Categorizing variants after whole genome sequencing", J.S. Berg
Lang, E., Naraghi, R. (2005) Neurovascular relationship at the trigeminal root entry zone in persistent idiopathic facial pain: findings from MRI 3D visualisation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:1506-1509. Full text