Are there any good books and articles for introducing Process Mining? What are the state-of-the-art research results for process mining? What are the differences between process mining and time series prediction?
I recommend to read the Process Mining book by Prof. Wil van der Aalst. It provides an introduction to process mining and an overview about the research state of the art. You can find publications on the processmining[dot]org website.
We also discuss many topics around process mining on our blog. For example, here is a post about How Process Mining Compares to Data Mining.
The main difference between time series prediction and process mining is that time series prediction does not discover higher level process models. Data mining techniques and process mining are complementary and can often be combined.