That type of infographic stems from the work of Otto Neurath on the Vienna method of pictorial statistics (a picture language later called Isotype) between the mid 1920s and the mid 1930s.
As a result, these might be called numerous things - "Isotype charts", "Vienna method charts" or "Vienna pictorial charts". You might even call it a "Neurath chart". You do sometimes see "pictogram chart" as perhaps a slightly more generic term. If you search on all those terms you turn up plenty of examples (plus imposters that Neurath would disown, such as versions using image size instead of repetition to indicate quantity).
Simple ones resemble bar charts or are reminiscent of dot charts, but more commonly they contain icons or symbols meant to suggest the subject of whatever information is being displayed - often people, but they could be almost anything; for Isotype, the particular visual style of the images is due to the artist Gerd Arntz. The graphics were often black and white, but in other cases used colors, symbols inside the icons - or both - to distinguish subgroups.
Here are a few examples of this style of graphic:
A few additional links:
With a suitable typeface ("font"), they're relatively simple to do - for example, this one uses a character from the Windows font Webdings (which has a number of somewhat-Isotype-style symbols in it):