# Tagged Questions

Causal inference tries to quantify the effect of a change in $X$ on $Y$ whilst holding constant or eliminating all other relevant factors which might influence this relationship.

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### Ranking of causal models

I remember seeing a paper that ranked causal statistical models, published by some research body, by quality in terms of generalizability or some similar facet(s). This would be a "hierarchy of ...
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### Causality in microeconometrics versus granger causality in time-series econometrics

I understand the causality as used in microeconomics (in particular IV or regression discontinuity design) and also the Granger causality as used in time-series econometrics. How do I relate one with ...
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### “Explaining” a time series - conceptual explanation needed

Imagine I have a time series for an animal population and a time series for a climatic variable during the same time period and at the same location. Unfortunately the data are observational (i.e., no ...
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### Correlation and regression [duplicate]

Can there be negative correlation but the regression line has a positive change when there is an increase in the independent variable?
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### How do instrumental variables address selection bias?

I'm wondering how an instrumental variable addresses selection bias in regression. Here's the example I'm chewing on: In Mostly Harmless Econometrics, the authors discuss an IV regression relating ...
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### Examples for teaching: Sometimes we CAN infer causality.

There have been threads here before which posted links of the media attributing causality to correlational studies, and links to those studies have been posted. It seems as if we are always focusing ...
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### Infer causality with high collinearity

I recently started to ask myself how to measure the impact of education on indexes like GDP: what is the outcome of mathematics or computer science on GDP, at the country level for instance. In this ...
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### Under what circumstances is regression discontinuity preferred to differences in differences?

I am looking at the adoption of universal health care coverage for children age 6 and under in a country. The take-up rate was practically 100%. I want to know the impact of having coverage on ...
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### Estimating the probability of causation based on finding a correlation, including experimental details

Say there is a hypothesis that A causes B (A -> B), and some likelihood that the hypothesis is correct (AB1%). Now, an experiment is run that claims to find a correlation between A and B. What I ...
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### Difference-in-Differences Estimator for Logistic Regressions

I have a pre-post intervention study with four groups: 1) Pre-Intervention Control, 2) Pre-Intervention Treatment, 3) Post-Intervention Control, and 4) Post-Intervention Treatment. The outcome is a ...
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### Estimating a confidence interval around the average of an interacted treatment effect

I've got a causal inference situation with heterogeneous treatment effects. In addition to simply estimating coefficients, I'd like to get an average effect of the treatment at the covariate values ...
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### causal inference with correlated multivariate outcomes

I've been struggling with how to think about the causal estimate of a program on two outcomes, when one of the two outcomes affects the other outcome. It seems sort of like simultaneous equations, ...
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### Guessing test question answers from scores

My teacher likes to give online quizzes that are about 20-30 questions long. Every student has the same questions in the same order. We are not told after taking the quiz which questions we got wrong, ...
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### Average causal effect of one year increase in schooling vs a four-year increase in schooling

I'm not sure why in Mostly Harmless Econometrics, last paragraph of p. 55, the expectations of $f_{i}(s-4)$ is taken and the expectation of $f_{i}(s-1)$ is not. The text reads: Conditional on ...
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I have a model where I suspect (purely on theoretical grounds) that double causation might be an issue. How can I test this hypothesis? I.e. I have something like $Y_i = \beta_0 + \beta_1 X_i + ... 1answer 94 views ### Why is the conditional mean of the reduced form error zero? For example, we have a simultaneous equation model of supply and demand: Supply: $$s(p)=\alpha_{s}+\beta_{s}p+\epsilon_{s}$$ Demand: $$d(p)=\alpha_{d}-\beta_{d}p+\epsilon_{d}$$ Market clearing ... 1answer 102 views ### Is there a branch of statistics that tries to explain “why” the dataset has certain statistical properties? Suppose I have a big dataset and I compute some statistical summary of it - e.g., the correlation of one dimension with another. I think a reasonable question to ask would be "what data points ... 1answer 80 views ### How to refer to variables which lie beyond causal pathway Causal diagrams are extremely good tools for discussing research plans for multivariate modeling between statisticians and non-statisticians. It's easy after some deliberation to decide which ... 1answer 264 views ### Omitted Variable Bias, verification in Gretl I am trying to verify the expression for Omitted Variable Bias (OVB) as given e.g. in Wooldridge:$\tilde{\beta_1} = \hat{\beta_1} + \hat{\beta_2} \cdot \tilde{\delta_1}$, where$\tilde{\delta_1}$is ... 2answers 142 views ### Correlation or t-test? Following experimental design was done and some data as shown in table below was obtained: pretest> intervention1> intervention2> posttest > perception survey Number of students=60 Number of ... 4answers 257 views ### Do edges in directed acyclic graph represent causality? I am studying Probabilistic Graphical Models, a book for self-study. Do edges in a directed acyclic graph (DAG) represent causal relations? What if I want to construct a Bayesian network, but I am ... 1answer 170 views ### Graphical models for correlation of random variables and prediction of hidden observations I am studying about Graphical Models and I came up with a simple example but I am not sure which kind of technique (HMM, DGM, MRF) would be able to help me with that. Imagine we have three balls that ... 2answers 150 views ### Does randomization really allow us to make claims of causality? Lets say two groups are compared. Subjects are randomly assigned to each group, then a treatment is given to half while a placebo is given to the other half. All aspects of the experiment (order of ... 1answer 310 views ### Two highly correlated variables where both correlate with a third: Correlation and Causation My question is certainly quite basic for statisticians! Let's suppose Var1 and Var2 are highly correlated with a poor$R^2$. ... 2answers 242 views ### Why is using cross-sectional data to infer / predict longitudinal changes a Bad Thing? I'm looking for a paper which I hope exists, but don't know if it does. It could be a set of case studies, and / or an argument from probability theory, about why using cross-sectional data to infer / ... 1answer 77 views ### Interpretation of lasso recovery results When people say that lasso regression can under certain assumptions recover "the support", i.e. non-zero regression weights, what does this mean? This cannot mean causal recovery, because Pearl has ... 2answers 1k views ### Understanding d-separation theory in causal Bayesian networks I am trying to understand the d-Separation logic in Causal Bayesian Networks. I know how the algorithm works, but I don't exactly understand why the "flow of information" works as stated in the ... 0answers 131 views ### Causality in Time Series I am reading an article which is trying to justify the need for causal inference in their inferential framework. The thought experiment is as follows: Suppose a statistician is asked to design a ... 0answers 38 views ### Adjusting for experimentally-caused panel attrition when evaluating treatment effects This question involves a questionable hypothetical scenario, but please bear with me. Suppose I ran an experiment in a coffee stand where the treatment was playing country music instead of the usual ... 0answers 790 views ### Difference-in-difference in panel data Under which conditions should we expect the difference-in-difference estimate to be equal to the equivalent panel data model? Strictly speaking, whenever we have a experiment that offers a well ... 3answers 298 views ### Mathematical definition of causality Let$Y$and$X$be random variables.$E(Y|X)$is the conditional mean of$Y$given$X$. We say$Y$is not causally related to$X$if$E(Y|X)$does not depend on$X$, which implies it is equal to ... 1answer 224 views ### Weighted Wilcoxon ranksum test I am using Stata for a survival analysis project involving inverse probability weighting (IPW). The question has arisen as to how to analyze weighted continuous data between two groups with a Wilcoxon ... 2answers 1k views ### How do difference-in-difference designs account for temporal autocorrelation Although there are doubtless many techniques for studying the impact of a discrete intervention over time, I am interested in two which have achieved widespread adoption in the social sciences: ... 2answers 1k views ### Does regression analysis measure cause and effect? Does regression analysis measure cause and effect? If yes, then how? If no, then what is done? Please describe with an example. 2answers 111 views ### What to do in logistic regression if you have a huge amount of variables? I am dealing with logistic regression, trying to identify variables which have a causal relationship with a binary response. The way I usually do it is to try variables one by one and visualize the ... 0answers 57 views ### Roy model question I am referring to G.S. Maddala: Limited Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics, pages 257-258. I add the relevant screenshots here: My question is, why is ... 1answer 291 views ### Are the relations in fixed, random and mixed effect models and multilevel models causal? In fixed, random and mixed effect models, and multilevel models, the response random variable is represented as a function of some explanatory variables and random errors. I was wondering if the ... 4answers 212 views ### Online resources for philosophy of causation for causal inference Can you recommend any books, articles, essays, online tutorials/courses, etc that would be interesting and useful for an epidemiologist/biostatistician to learn about the philosophy of ... 1answer 108 views ### Finding the corresponding bayesian network of a predefined joint probability distribution Given a joint probability distribution over the variables$X_1,X_2,\dots,X_n$. Is there an algorithm for constructing the corresponding Bayesian Network? 1answer 77 views ### Are latent variable models modelling causality? Is the purpose of latent variable models to model causality, where the causes are not observable i.e. latent? Are latent variables modelling causes of the observable variables? Thanks and regards! 1answer 44 views ### Terminology to Use Should you say a factor is associated with a disease or disease risk? For example, which is better to say: Smoking is associated with lung cancer Smoking is associated with lung cancer risk 0answers 964 views ### Econometrics: Sargan test Here are 3 questions about econometrics and R codes. Test the endogeneity of the variable EDUC: ... 2answers 1k views ### What test is this for endogenous variables? Can somebody tell me whether the following R code (for econometrics endogenous variables) is for a Hausman test, a Nakamura test, or some other test? ... 1answer 2k views ### What does plausibility or plausibile mechanism mean? In Bradford Hill criteria for causality Plausibility: A plausible mechanism between cause and effect is helpful (but Hill noted that knowledge of the mechanism is limited by current knowledge). ... 1answer 180 views ### Choice of path weights in SEM conceptual model using openMx I am reviewing the R package OpenMx for a genetic epidemiology analysis in order to learn how to specify and fit SEM models. I am new to this so bear with me. I am following the example on page 59 of ... 1answer 107 views ### Multiple imputation for variables used to calculate regression weights My basic question: is there anything that you can't impute using MI? My more complicated question: Consider the regression$Y=\rho T+X'\beta+\epsilon$. For whatever reason, you want to weight the ... 1answer 188 views ### Properties of bivariate standard normal and implied conditional probability in the Roy model Sorry for the long title, but my problem is quite specific and hard to explain in one title. I am currently learning about the Roy Model (treatment effect analysis). There is one derivation step at ... 1answer 120 views ### How to quantify mis-specification bias and compare against smoothing bias for a non-parametric estimate of a randomly allocated continuous treatment? Suppose that there is a data-generating process $$y = \alpha + g(x) + \epsilon$$ which is to say that an outcome is some function of$x$. Suppose that$x\$ is randomly assigned, so ...
I understand that the basic definition of endogeneity is that $$X'\epsilon=0$$ is not satisfied, but what does this mean in a real world sense? I read the Wikipedia article, with the supply and ...