A mathematical quantity designed to measure the amount of randomness of a random variable.

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24 views

How is the entropy calculated by the `entropy` package in R?

So, as per the docs, I'm calling the function like this v = c(0,4,3,6,7,3,2,3,4,5) entropy(discretize(v, numBins = 8, r = c(0,7))) and I get ...
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15 views

Self-designed objective for multiple linear regression

A multiple linear regression is to use several predictor variables to predict the outcome of a response variable, like the following relationship: ...
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1answer
18 views

How an entropy can be used to cluster a stocks in stock market? [closed]

Recently when I read reviews in entropy and its application in share market. I found the concept of entropy and clustering is not actively used in stock market analysis. I think the clustering stocks ...
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1answer
19 views

Why do we not care about target class probabilities of 0 in the cross entropy equation?

Only the target classes where probability is equal to 1 contributes to the loss. I'm dealing specifically with neural networks, but the question is general.
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1answer
90 views

Is differential entropy always less than infinity?

For an arbitrary continuous random variable, say $X$, is its differential entropy always less than $\infty$? (It's ok if it's $-\infty$.) If not, what's the necessary and sufficient condition for it ...
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0answers
14 views

Impact of conjugate priors on mutual information for Naive Bayes

I am currently thinking about the following problem. Suppose you have a simple Naive Bayes model for binary classification based on binary random variables. For example, suppose you want to predict ...
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29 views

Shannon entropy and inequality of expectations

Consider two distinct probability distributions $P(X)$ and $Q(Y)$---defined on the same domain---with (Shannon) entropy of $H(X)$ and $H(Y)$. I am interested to prove that $$ H(X) \leq H(Y) \implies ...
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6 views

Minimum description length principal (MDLP) stopping criterion with repeated values

Fayyad's paper on discretization of continuous attributes describes a canonical way to discretize continuous attributes using a minimum entropy method. However, the paper does not describe what to do ...
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13 views

lower bound on conditional differential entropy

I was wondering if there exists a lower bound of conditional differential entropy of Gaussian random variables. Formally, let $\mathcal{X}=\{X_1,\ldots,X_m\}$ and $\mathcal{Y}=\{Y_1,\ldots,Y_n\}$ ...
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1answer
125 views

What is the intuitive (geometric?) meaning of minimizing the log determinant of a matrix?

I have come across optimization problems which seek a positive semi-definite matrix $A$ that minimizes some possibly non-convex function that includes the addition of $1/(\text{dimension}) * \log \det ...
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1answer
18 views

Information content of a set of random variables

Suppose there is some distribution $F$ not known to us. However, we can get information about this distribution by means of samples, i.e. we have a set of random variables from this distribution. ...
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1answer
30 views

Regularizing soft kmeans with entropy

So in classical fuzzy k-means clustering, the objective function is $\sum_i \sum_j u_{ij} \|x_i - c_j\|^2$ Now, we want to regularize this objective function using the entropy: $\sum_i^n H(U_i) = - ...
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20 views

entropy-calculation in R [closed]

Is there anyone to have used the package "entropy" ? How can I create a vector of counts if my sample is large (2000 points)? I tried creating a vector of counts using table(), is there a more ...
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2answers
58 views

software library to compute KL divergence?

Are there any software libraries that compute KL divergences in closed form, that also give the derivatives of the KL divergence wrt the distributions' parameters? I'm using Julia, so it's ...
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1answer
40 views

Continuous joint entropy with fully dependent variable

Consider a variable $X$ with a continuous uniform distribution in the interval $[a,b]$ and a variable $Y$ that is fully dependent on $X$, i.e., $p(Y=y\ |\ X=x) = \delta (x-y)$, where $\delta$ is a ...
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2answers
37 views

Clean data and noisy data: which one has higher entropy?

I have a question regarding to the information theory. Between clean data and noisy data, which one has higher entropy? I think the noisy data has, am I right? But, noisy data does not have more ...
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67 views

Does Breiman's random forest use information gain or Gini index?

I would like to know if Breiman's random forest (random forest in R randomForest package) uses as a splitting criterion (criterion for attribute selection) information gain or Gini index? I tried to ...
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1answer
189 views

Calculating Diversity using normalized species counts

I am trying to calculate the change in diversity of species encountered throughout time. My dataset is comprised to detections of tagged fish for 48 consecutive weeks. My thought was to bin the ...
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1answer
76 views

Entropy of multivariate gaussian mixture random variable

Short: ${\bf X} \sim N({\bf 0},{\bf I}+{\bf I}_j)$; ${\bf I}_j\in S=\{I_j: I_j$ is diagonal and $ I_j \succeq 0\}, |S|=K$, and $j\sim U(1,K)$. What is $h({\bf X})$? What happens when ...
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2answers
52 views

Conditional entropy and Spearman's correlation based lag in time series

I have two time series A, B. Both are seasonal and B primarily is A driven( other temporal causes may exist). B-Red, A- Green I want to calculate lag of red series with respect to green as clearly, ...
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1answer
29 views

Transfer entropy on real, continuous data

Here is the goal and problem: I am trying to calculate a measure of coupling between real-valued, continuous oscillatory data. The data come from two people producing synchronized rhythmic ...
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0answers
14 views

Residuals as a percentage

Considering that still there is no suggestions, I assumed that my initial question is not fully understandable. I will try to ask same question in more abstract way, hoping it will come out as better ...
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1answer
71 views

Find entropy in WEKA

I am new in data mining so sorry for asking this kind of silly question. I am working on FAST feature selection algorithm and for that I need to find entropy of each attribute in dataset. But the ...
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29 views

R “Entropy” package gives weird KL divergence results

Using the R "entropy" package, I tried some KL divergence computations as a sanity check, but I'm getting weird results. For instance, shouldn't the following all be 2*log2(2)= 2 ? Instead, I'm ...
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1answer
60 views

How does the log(p(x,y)) normalize the pointwise mutual information?

I'm trying to understand the normalized form of pointwise mutual information. $npmi = \frac{pmi(x,y)}{log(p(x,y))}$ Why does the log joint probability normalize the pointwise mutual information to ...
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110 views

Entropy, Softmax and the derivative term in Backpropagation

I'm currently interested in using Cross Entropy Error when performing the BackPropagation algorithm for classification, where I use the Softmax Activation Function in my output layer. From what I ...
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33 views

Maximum Entropy with no index

This is a simpler problem than trying to solve, but have a feeling once get the methodology I can apply it to the harder problem. Let $ H(p)= -q \ln(q) - p \ln(p) $ be the entropy of the Bernoulli ...
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1answer
59 views

Sum of truncated normal distributions with other distributions (like uniform) that have partially common domains

I have some truncated normal distributions and some other distributions (like uniform distribution) that have partially common domains. I'd like to know how can I calculate the entropy for the sum of ...
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1answer
58 views

Tsallis and Renyi Normalized Entropy

I'm working with Shannon, Tsallis and Renyi entropies. I need to normalized these entropies for comparison purposes. In Shannon's entropy you need only to divide by the log of the number of bins. ...
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34 views

Propagation of uncertainty: entropy of multinomial

My goal is to estimate the entropy of a multinomial distribution, based on a single observation (a set of counts for each possible outcome). I also want to calculate the uncertainty in my estimated ...
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68 views

Decision tree with adaboost

Helllo! I'm currently learning the AdaBoost algorithm to use it with Decision Tree. I want to implement everything myself (that's the way I learn - implement everything from scratch and later use ...
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2answers
99 views

Is it possible to use SD instead of entropy?

While discussing about decision trees in class, my teacher touched upon the topic of entropy. I have understood the purpose of entropy (have not understood how the formula $H(X)= -\sum_{i}{p(x_i) \log ...
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1answer
43 views

Why to use Chi2 instead of accuracy in a decision tree?

Why many decision trees are using Chi2 or Information Gain Ratio to split the node when they can directly use accuracy, lift or AUC?
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62 views

Computation of the entropy of marginals?

I have implemented this paper: Efficient graph-based semi-supervised learning of structured tagging models In the last sentence of the section 4.2, the authors have mentioned another possible way of ...
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1answer
208 views

How to determine Forecastability of time series?

One of the important issues facing forecasters is if the given series can be forecasted or not ? I stumbled on an article entitled "Entropy as an A Priori Indicator of Forecastability" by Peter ...
3
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1answer
61 views

Entropy of Sum vs Difference of Random Variable

I am looking for a proof of the following fact Let $X$ and$ X'$ be i.i.d on $\{0,1,2\}$ (not necessarily uniform). Prove that $$H((X + X') \mod3) \leq H((X - X') \mod3)$$ where $H()$ is the ...
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1answer
279 views

Is there an R package to calculate differential entropy

I am trying to calculate differential entropy over my data. This is how a subset of my data set looks like : ...
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33 views

structural equation model based on generalized maximum entropy in R

I am trying to conduct an experiment based on generalized maximum entropy but I am not sure on how GME is different from maximum entropy. Can anybody tell me how to reparametized the SEM based on GME ...
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2answers
116 views

Why KL-Divergence uses “ln” in its formula?

I notice in KL-Divergence formula a $ln$ function is used: $${D_{KL}}(P||Q) = \sum\limits_i {P(i)} \ln \frac{{P(i)}}{{Q(i)}},$$ where $i$ is a point and $P(i)$ the true discrete probability ...
2
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1answer
89 views

Entropy stays the same with a larger distribution?

Based on the given definition of entropy, $H(P(X)) = -\sum_i P(x_i)log_2(P(x_i)$, it appears that if I have a distribution $P_1(x) = [\frac{1}{4},\frac{1}{4},\frac{1}{4},\frac{1}{4}]$ and another ...
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69 views

What is the relationship between Shannon Entropy and Approximate Entropy

I prefer a worded explanation because I am not a math expert. I know it Approximate Entropy is derived as an aproximation of Kolmogorov Entropry so the relationship between Kolmogorov Entropry and ...
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1answer
71 views

Why constrain mean and standard deviation when proving Gaussian is maximum differential entropy pdf?

I'm reading Bishop's Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning. In chapter 1.6: Information Theory (page 53) when trying to derive the maximum differential entropy pdf from the definition of continuous ...
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127 views

Difference between Weighted Average Entropy and Adjusted Mutual Information (for evaluating Clustering)

I was advised by my team leader to use this weighted average entropy to evaluating the performance of my dbscan clustering algorithm, and its mathematical formulation is: Scikit provides what many ...
2
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0answers
32 views

Continuous variable evaluation in decision trees

I was going through the C4.5 and ID3 algorithms used to construct a decision tree. Was wondering if there is an efficient way to compute information gain from a continuous variable (during the step ...
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2answers
35 views

Entropy of a block of characters

I have a question about the following statement about entropy: If a source provides us with a sequence chosen from 4 symbols (say A, C, G, T), then the maximum average information per symbol is 2 ...
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0answers
169 views

How to split a decision tree when information gains of all attributes are zero?

The textbook tells us that we should choose an attribute with the maximum information gain to split a decision tree. My question is what if all information gains are zero? Should we stop splitting or ...
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12 views

Model comparision

I am comparing supervised vs unsupervised method. I have computed entropy from the confusion matrix of the 10-fold crossvalidated output. I have also applied external criteria to unsupervised methods ...
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90 views

Constructing Random Forests for binary classification by minimizing entropy

I'm looking to perform a binary classification using random forests, but I do not quite understand how to minimize the entropy of the data / what tests I should run on the nodes to do so. I'm fairly ...
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85 views

Likelihood Ratio as statistical test for Transfer Entropy with MatLab

I estimated a Transfer Entropy value TE(XY). Now I want to establish the statistical significance of the estimated value. Therefore I used the method of shuffled surrogates to estimate a shuffled ...
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1answer
53 views

Significance test for entropy?

Is there any way to test the difference of entropy given frequency table? For example, let's say we have dice 1 and dice 2, and we experimented with them and they showed up like ...