# Tagged Questions

Factor analysis is a data reduction technique which replaces inter-correlating variables by a smaller number of continuous latent variables called factors. The factors are believed to be responsible for the inter-correlations. For confirmatory factor analysis, please use tag confirmatory-factor. For ...

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### Does the stepwisefit function in MATLAB handle correlation between the factors?

I have been told to run a factor analysis using the stepwisefit function in MATLAB. Basically, this function helps you fit a model composed of $T$ factors $F=(f_1, ... , f_T)$ each of which have $N$ ...
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### Why set weights to 1 in confirmatory factor analysis?

I write this question with reference to an example on p138-142 of the following document: ...
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### How many participants do I need to carry out factorial ANOVA $2 \times 4 \times 3$?

I am planning to use a mixed factorial design for my thesis with emotion (anger, fear, sadness and happiness) and time (baseline, presentation, immediate recall and delayed recall) as the ...
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### Items from two constructs load on one factor in factor analysis

I am trying to determine the factor structure of a set of 84 items. Exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation was conducted to estimate the underlying factor structure for the sample data. ...
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### Confusion related to multicollinearity, FA and regression of heterogeneous data

I am currently working with a data set that contains about 26 IVs of almost all sorts of scale of measurement (binary, nominal, ordinal and interval scale variables). There are strong reasons to ...
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### Meanings of “1” on arrows on Confirmatory Factor Analysis diagram

I am just a novice in factor analysis. I am writing some presentation about factor analysis and I am mainly reading about exploratory factor analysis. Both EFA and CFA have diagrams. For EFA ...
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### Unexpected factor structure in different samples

I have administered a questionnaire to respondents asking about customers' adoption of technology. I want to do an exploratory principal components factor analysis in Stata to form constructs from a ...
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### How to interpret negative factor loadings and residual variances in SEM?

I've been trying to fit a SEM model, using misconceptions and the correct conception as latent variables. My instrument is a set of items that ask a binary yes or no question. (Is something in a ...
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I'm doing a factor analysis and using the resulting factors in a regression. I'm using sas. A number of the variables load positively on a factor. In order to make it easier to interpret in the final ...
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### Cluster or factor analysis?

I read a lot of forum to understand this, but I'm only more confused. I have a database with some comorbidities and I want to see if they could be divided in groups. I did a cluster analysis and a ...
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### Reducing no of variables subsetted based on depth for PCA

First of all, sorry for the strange title, I had no idea how to describe my problem better. My issue is the following, I think it is pretty much limited to geosciences. I have several properties for ...
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### When is it incorrect to compute factor scores by summing (or averaging) raw variable scores?

I understand that a problem will be inevitable if the variables have different scales of measurement. My inclination is to think that even if the variables have the same scale of measurement it would ...
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### How to control for common method bias?

I am doing CFA to test for common method bias using an unmeasured latent construct method. The average common variance I am getting from the common factor is about 31% which is high (as should be less ...
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### Factor analysis using stata “predict” command and get negative value for non-negative variable?

I am running factor analysis on stata to reduce a few variables to a single explanatory variable which means "experience" of a manager (should be non-negative value), however, after using "predict" ...
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### What to do with a variable that loads equally on two factors in a factor analysis?

After performing a factor analysis on a set of variables, I have one variable that loads equally on two factors. What should I do with this variable that loads equally on two factors? Should I ...
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### What's better: one combined Factor Analysis for two groups of students, or two separate Factor Analyses?

I am dealing with a cross-cultural study. There are two groups of students (from two different countries). They do some test, and I need to extract factors from the data with help of SPSS Factor ...
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### Book/chapter/article recommendation for beginners level confirmatory factor analysis?

I am looking for a text that will help me provide explanations suited to undergraduate level. I've found that Andy Field's "Discovering Statistics Using..." series allowed me to pitch things at the ...
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### Can I categorize the factor scores to use them as predictors of an ordinal logistic regression?

I was wondering if I can categorize the factor saved scores by taking their quartiles (or some other measures, I am not sure what should I use!) as cut points and use them as predictors in an ordinal ...
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### Impact of some dimensions of one construct on the another construct in a 2-construct model

I have made a model consisting of two constructs, say parents and children, each with several dimensions and set of items (variables). I have used a mixture of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and ...
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### Mean regression factor scores and attributes cross tabulation yields. Why are all expected signs reversed?

I ran a factor analysis on 20 reasons for purchasing 4 different Goods. These are ranked on a likert scale from 1-5 with 5 being the "extremely important case", 4 important case, etc. I extracted 4 ...
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### How to interpret factor scores saved as Reg variables in SPSS?

How do I interpret the factor scores that I save as Regression variables with SPSS? I have 30 attribute variables with reponses such as extremely important, very important, important, not that ...
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### factor analysis for different array platform using factanal

I want to replicate the factor analysis process of one published paper, This process is mainly to calculate the unifying gene expression matrix from 3 different platforms but with same patient ...
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### PCA with same cases in different periods of time

I am new user of principal component analysis (PCA) and I have a big doubt. I have 32 observations with 45 variables and I know that I cannot use the simple PCA for this analysis (n < p). However, ...
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### EFA on R: Classifying Observations

I am newbie for R and Stats. I am using EFA in R [psych library] to identify the latent factors underlying my data. I got a reasonable amount of factors matching my purpose. My question is once I ...
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### How to analyse a ranking and rating scale together?

For a market research; consumers are asked to rank the features of a product based on the priority. For example, Rank the following features for a device based on your priority (1 being the top most ...
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### Validating a Varimax implementation?

I'm writing an implementation of factor analysis and I'm having trouble convincing myself (or even better, proving) that my varimax implementation is correct. What's the best way to prove that a ...
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### Cronbach's Alpha and Factor Analysis for Repeated Measures Design

I have a repeated measures (time 1, time 2) experimental design and would like to run a confirmatory factor analysis on the scales I've used and to follow up with a cronbach's alpha. However I am ...
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### What are the differences between Factor Analysis and Principal Component Analysis

It seems that a number of the statistical packages that I use wrap these two concepts together. However, I'm wondering if there are different assumptions or data 'formalities' that must be true to use ...
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### Factor analysis: What to do when determinant is almost zero and when KMO for a variable is low?

I'm conducting a factor analysis on 40 interval-level variables, and have two immediate concerns: The determinant is 6.608E-006, which is much lower than the ...
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### How to correctly apply the Fama&French with momentum to estimate the degree of outperformance?

I have a question about the use of the Fama & French factors. Iâ€™m currently examining possible differences in abnormal earnings between to different type of real estate portfolios. To counter ...
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### Exploratory Factor Analysis Using Data Appended By Group

I am working on an analysis using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with the common factor model. This question concerns a methodological issue. Any insights from someone who knows about EFA would be ...
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### Can I do parallel analysis with any type of exploratory factor analysis/principal component analysis?

I wish to perform parallel analysis to determine how many factors I should extract from my maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis. I have been referred to a program that calculates the ...
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### EFA clearly supports one-factor, measure is internally consistent, but CFA has poor fit?

I am exploring the psychometric properties of a 10-item self-report measure. I have about 400 cases in two independent samples. The items are completed on 4-point Likert scales. An EFA clearly ...
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### Dimensionality Reduction Algorithm for Large Dataset?

I have a reasonably large (5k variables x 120k cases) that I'd like to run a dimensionality reduction algorithm on. I tried doing a simple Factor Analysis on it in SPSS, but it (predictably) barfed on ...
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### Muthén's robust weighted least squares factoring method for binary items…in R?

I am working on an exploratory factor analysis of dichotomous items. I've found this post extremely helpful. However, Mplus seems to be a standard that journals in my field are expecting, and I would ...
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### Fitting Mancova model on factor scores

I have two matrices with multiple variables. The two matrices come from same sample.I would call them matrix A and Matrix B.Each of them have many correlated variables . I would want to evaluate the ...
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### Estimation of competitiveness of firm

Recently I have taken up one assignment wherein I am mesuring the competitiveness of indian apparel export firm. To compute competitiveness I used a survey where firm owners were given 12 questions to ...
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### is psych::principal function still PCA when using rotation?

I have tried to reproduce some research (using PCA) from SPSS in R. In my experience, principal() function from package psych ...
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I have this picture in Lattin representing structure and pattern loadings in factor analysis. If $Z$ (an observed variable) $=w_1 F_1+w_2 F_2$ (according to factor model), then the pattern loadings of ...
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### Variable transformation for factor analysis

When conducting a factor analysis, we need to check the normality and constant variance assumption of the original variables. If there is HSK existing in the data, can I do different ...
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### What's the difference between a component and a factor in parallel analysis?

The psych package in R has a fa.parallel function to help determine the number of factors or components. From the documentation: ...
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### Does the average of extraction communalities need to equal the cumulative extraction SS loadings?

Using SPSS I've run an (as yet, unrotated) factor analysis with 3 factors, using first Maximum Likelihood and then using Generalized Least Squares. I thought that the average of extraction ...
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### Rescale factor scores from factor analysis to latent metric in R

I'm calculating a factor analysis of several variables in R. I want to determine each case's value on the latent variable. When I run the factor analysis, I receive factor scores. The factor scores do ...
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### Using factors scores in a multiple regression [duplicate]

Can factor scores be used as dependent variables in regression? Also, I want to see if demos (e.g. age, SES etc) predict performance in five different cognitive ability tasks. For each task I have ...
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### “matrix is not positive definite” - even when highly correlated variables are removed

I am running a factor analysis in SPSS and get a "matrix is not positive definite" error from my correlation matrix. I've tried removing correlated variables, but I have to remove all variables down ...
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I just want to confirm if it is possible to reverse the sign (+/-) on the factor loadings of one factor. I run a PAF with Oblimin rotation. I obtained 6 factor but in one of them the items that load ...
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### Best factor extraction methods, with reference to SPSS

SPSS offers several methods of factor extraction: Principal components (which isn't factor analysis at all) Unweighted least squares Generalized least squares Maximum Likelihood Principal Axis Alpha ...
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### Factor intercorrelations and model design

Having done an exploratory factor analysis (SPSS), what exactly can I infer from the factor intercorrelation table that is output after the factors are extracted/rotated? If two factors are ...