Factor analysis is a data reduction technique which replaces inter-correlating variables by a smaller number of continuous latent variables called factors. The factors are believed to be responsible for the inter-correlations. For confirmatory factor analysis, please use tag confirmatory-factor. For ...

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how many questions per construct to include on survey

I am developing a survey that tests a number of different constructs relevant to a particular educational intervention and subsequent educational outcomes. For most of the constructs, the questions ...
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23 views

Factor analysis on non normal data ( Ordinal data of Likert Scale) [duplicate]

How to check the normality of data collected on 5 point Likert scale? As it is ordinal numbers not continuous. Using SPSS the Shapiro Wilk or Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicate my data is not normal. ...
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143 views

What is the proper association measure of a variable with a PCA component?

I am using FactoMineR to reduce my data set of measurements to the latent variables. Now, the variable map is clear for me to interpret, but I am confused when ...
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53 views

Performing a factor analysis on categorical data

Let's say that I have the following data on banner advertisements and I want to understand what 'factors' exist within the data. Due to many of the variables being 'similar', I can't use linear ...
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38 views

Can factor analysis improve the fit of a predictive regression model?

My company is working with a client who have built a logistic regression model to predict whether kids with psychiatric disorders will successfully complete a State intervention program (Yes or No). ...
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Factor analysis in preparation for Rasch

I'm breaking into Rasch modelling and finding it very useful. However I'm just trying to find a way to begin making use of techniques I was familiar with when using classical test methods, such as ...
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Confirmatory factor analysis without the raw data

I have the correlation matrix, sample sizes, and descriptive statistics for a set of variables. I know that it is possible to run principal component analysis (PCA) and exploratory factor analysis ...
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59 views

Cointegrated Vector ARMA (CVARMA) Model vs. Dynamic Factor Model (DFM)

Two questions regarding the equivalence (or lack thereof) of vector error correction model (VECM) cointegrated vector ARMA model (CVARMA) and dynamic factor model (DFM): Can every VECM CVARMA be ...
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5 views

correlation of ordinal and dichotomous data in confirmatory factor analysis

I want to run a confirmatory factor analysis on a dataset that contains dichotomous (yes/no) and ordinal (Likert scale ranging from 1 to 4) scaled items. I know it is advised -assuming an underlying ...
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Construct validity

I seek to establish the construct validity of a translated questionnaire. I found that the factor analysis is used for this measurement validity. Does the analysis used in the case of unidimensional ...
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How to measure construct validity?

I recently received feedback from a journal (in education) that "The idea that you can assess construct validity through a factor analysis is inconsistent with how we usually think about validity in ...
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7 views

first and second order factors

I am not deep into statistics yet, however ,I am reading an article that speaks about measurement scale. It says that some items (A,B,C) are first-order factor, but another item (D) is second-order ...
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23 views

Factor analysis: what are the total possible scores for calculated factors based on Likert scale responses?

I have two factors, Peer Social Interaction (PSI) and Sense of Belonging (SB). Four Likert scale questions correspond to each factor. I used the factor loadings for each question to create a ...
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33 views

Factor Analysis vs. Random Forest Feature importance

Could someone explain the intuition behind the difference of feature importance using Factor Analysis vs. Random Forest Feature importance. Does there lie an advantage in RF due to the fact that it ...
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18 views

Reverse scored items lead to different factor loadings

I am doing a factor analysis with principal axis analysis and oblimin rotation. Many of my items are negatively formulated, and seeing that i need to do a reliability analysis, i decided to reversed ...
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64 views
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Principle of factor analysis

Please is anybody can explain me the principle of factor analysis (exploratory and confirmatory) that I will use in the validation of a questionnaire translated. Do I have to make a survey using the ...
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61 views

Normality assumption in PCA

From Shapiro-Wilk's test I see that the responses to Likert (4point) items are not normally distributed, although Q-Q plots approximately indicate to normality. I have done PCA analysis on those items ...
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Factor analysis with repeated measures

Multilevel factor analysis seems to be the technical term for factor analysis with repeated measures, judging from this abstract. To be precise, following Wikipedia's factor analysis notation, the ...
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21 views

Mixture distribution fitting for latent variable analysis

Are there any analytic approaches to using mixture distribution fitting for latent variable analysis? I'm specifically interested in existing approaches to determining whether mixture components ...
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1answer
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Variation of binary responses between repeated measures

I am bit confused in terms of analyzing my data. I have done an experiment which involves testing of detection systems with controlled footage.The footage has been grouped based on scene properties ...
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29 views

Factor analysis results

I carried out factor analysis on 31 5 likert-scale questions which represent my 6 constructs. The results showed 6 factors, consistent with my hypothesis but the analysis grouped my questions ...
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67 views

How to handle variables with low correlation but high loadings in factor analysis

I am doing factor analysis to check the factorial validity of a 14-items scale with four subscales. Two items have low (less than 0.3) correlations with other items in the subscale to which they ...
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50 views

Determining Relative Weights

I am looking for some recommendations and more specifics about how to do the following: Objective: To determine the weights of a number of stock valuation metrics. I am looking at doing this across ...
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14 views

Individual item reliability in factor analysis

Im currently testing the reliability and validity of the SERVQUAL model (measuring just the items for each dimension. Hence these items should load on just factor). My supervisor wants me to include ...
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66 views

Use of factor analysis + regression

Independent Variable: I have a survey of 50 states indicating the amount of control the state board of education has in 31 areas answered on a three point scale (1 = total control; 2 = partial ...
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21 views

Multiple Factor analysis and squared cosines

I am a bit confused on how to proceed using the MFA analysis from FactoMineR in my data set. I am currently working with activity results of 15 bacteria (b1, b2, b3, b4, b5,.., b15), divided into 3 ...
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129 views

Factor Analysis in SPSS & CFA in AMOS

I'm currently in the middle of analysing data for a masters dissertation and I'm having a lot of trouble with understanding factor analysis. I've collected data using a questionnaire in which I ...
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72 views

Is it a good idea to use log scale on scree plots for PCA/ICA/FA?

I always found the concept of determining the "ideal" number of components/factors for an ICA/PCA/FA via a scree plot useful and quick, but also a bit shaky. In an effort to try to make the scree ...
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Factor Analysis - principal axis analysis and MAP-Test

I have got an important question concerning principal axis factor analysis: Is it possible to extract the factors according to the MAP-criteria, or is this criteria only valid when using principal ...
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48 views

Linear Model or Logistic Model: Can Someone Recommend a Book?

I have a huge data set that looks roughly like this: ...
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27 views

What does it mean to include a p-value in an exploratory factor analysis?

I have been informed that I should have a p value listed in my EFA results section? I am confused by this and wonder what am I missing?
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Cross Vaidation in Factor Analysis

I am trying to conduct an EFA with a sample size of 150 respondents. I would also like to use cross-validation but my professor says that the sample is not big enough for that. Is that true?
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19 views

In CFA, which method (MLE, GLS, etc.) is preferable for Likert scale type items?

I need to perform a CFA on an 18 items questionnaire, and I wonder which method would be best suited for the analysis (considering multivariate normality requirements are met): MLE, GLS, ULS, or WLS? ...
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Rotation of Mean Centred Variables in Principle Components Analysis

I'm looking to manually (Excel) perform PCA without any statistical packages such as R, but having trouble understanding how to rotate the original variables to find the maximum variance for the new ...
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71 views

Singular covariance matrix in exploratory Factor Analysis

I'm kind of a noob to EFA and am trying to use the FANode object in Python. This is from the MDP library. I am using it on survey data to see which variables are tied together. Whenever I run it on my ...
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How to compute a latent variable (as a composite index)

Can I calculate a latent variable (construct) after the formula: Sum of (summated scale for factor i * variance explained by factor i), i taking values from 1 to n (n being the number of factors)? Or ...
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Summated scales for factors (latent variables)

For summated scales: can I use all the variables that load on a factor or is it necessary to use only the variables with high loading (over 0.70, for example)?
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Loadings in factor analysis

If I have a sample of over 350 respondents, is it acceptable to consider loadings over 0.50 as being practically significant or should I consider loadings over 0.30 as being significant (which would ...
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Criteria for deleting variables in factor analysis [duplicate]

Does it have importance in conventional PCA/factor analysis which of the criteria: communality and loading problems is taken into consideration for deleting variables in the conventional PCA/factor ...
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Summated scales (after factor analysis)

Is it okay to calculate summated scales if I am undertaking an exploratory study and some of the factors that result are somewhat different from what I have found in the literature? (I have read that ...
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42 views

Combining CATPCA with conventional PCA or factor analysis

I have some concerns regarding factor analysis and especially about combining the factor analysis for an ordinal scale (categorical data) - CATPCA with conventional PCA or with factor analysis. ...
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99 views

Factor analysis - CATPCA combined with conventional PCA

I have some concerns regarding factor analysis and especially about combining the factor analysis for an ordinal scale (categorical data) - CATPCA with conventional PCA. Basically, I need to enter my ...
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38 views

Creating index from three variables in panel data

I have three variables which I want to combine in one. The obvious choice is factor analysis or principal component analysis but it's not so simple with panel data because it needs means and standard ...
4
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1answer
93 views

Principal component regression analysis using SPSS

I have done multiple regression analysis (MLR) of my data and find out $R^2$ and $r$, and then to remove multicollinearity problem I used PCA. This analysis generated PC equal to my variables, I ...
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Scores derived from variance specific for a factor

I received a comment about my article from one of the reviewer but I do not understand what I should do. Here is a short explanation of the study: This study investigated the influence of lectures ...
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1answer
58 views

Eliminated items in Factor Analysis

I'd like to get your opinions on how to interpret items that had to be eliminated in factor analysis (FA). I've been researching consumer shopping motivations and ran a survey with 40 items, which ...
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98 views

factor analysis for given data with help of matlab

suppose that we have following data i have done covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition ...
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90 views

What is the relationship between scale reliability measures (Cronbach's alpha etc.) and component/factor loadings?

Let's say I have a dataset with scores on a bunch of questionnaire items, which are theoretically comprised of a smaller number of scales, like in psychology research. I know a common approach here ...
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402 views

Steps done in factor analysis compared to steps done in PCA

I know basically how to express PCA (Principal component analysis) mathematicaly, but I would like to know steps that should be used for factor analysis. ...