Questions about the history of statistics.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
1answer
22 views

Who came up with the term “complete spatial randomness?”

I've seen the term "complete spatial randomness" widely used in literature but can't figure out who was the first to coin it. Who originated it, and is there a paper it can be cited to?
4
votes
1answer
175 views

What were the main statistical contributions of Ronald Fisher?

Richard Dawkins has described Ronald Fisher as "the father of modern statistics and experimental design", a line which is quoted in Fisher's Wikipedia biography. And also Anders Hald called him "a ...
5
votes
0answers
95 views

What are real life examples of an exploited Random Number Generator

We all know that Random Number Generators in computers don't generate true random numbers, but instead generate pseudo-random numbers. Also, some RNGs are better than others, and some are ...
4
votes
0answers
37 views

Fisher - Neyman dispute over weak and strong null hypotheses

I am trying to find information on one of the many exchanges between Fisher and (I believe, but cannot be sure) Neyman. I believe the exchange took place at one of the Royal Statistical Society ...
5
votes
0answers
43 views

State of the art in general learning from data in '69

I'm trying to understand the context of the famous Minsky and Papert book "Perceptrons" from 1969, so critical to neural networks. As far as I know, there were no other generic supervised learning ...
15
votes
1answer
148 views

Has anyone besides Egon Pearson accessed Gosset's 1904 paper?

Has anyone besides Egon Pearson accessed William Sealy Gosset's 1904 report "The Application of the 'Law of Error' to the Work of the Brewery"? I guess it's Guinness property, but given its historical ...
14
votes
2answers
921 views

Why is the logistic distribution called “logistic”?

What is "logistic" about the logistic distribution, in a common sense way? What is the etymology of and the lexical rationale for the name, not just pure math definition?
1
vote
1answer
46 views

What Are Some Historical Applied Stats Problems [closed]

What are some interesting, historical applied statistics problems ? i.e. sometime in the past that statistics have been used to affect the course of events? The kind of problems I am looking for ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Should 20,000 data points provide a significant difference in confidence level over 300?

I built an automated trading system and am experiencing better results during backtesting than during real trading using the strategy I developed. During backtesting my strategy results in 300 trades ...
3
votes
0answers
45 views

Cumulant and moment names beyond variance, skewness and kurtosis

In physics, starting from position $x(t)$, one obtains rates of changes via derivatives with respect to time: velocity, acceleration, jerk, jounce (4th order). Some have proposed snap, crackle, pop ...
3
votes
1answer
58 views

How did statistician came up with distribution at the first place.

Take beta distribution as an example Just want to understand the thinking behind it, not the exact history. What was the problem what was the end result and how did beta distribution helped. (I am ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Why was it ever thought multi layer perceptrons couldn't implement XOR functions?

As I understand it the Perceptrons books helped start the "AI Winter" because the authors claimed that multilayer perceptrons couldn't implement non linearly separable functions like XOR. However it ...
0
votes
1answer
124 views

Who created exponential regression? Is this the first transcendental function used in regression?

Who created exponential regression? Is this the first transcendental function used in regression? Fisher's paper just mentioned the polynomial version. ...
16
votes
2answers
482 views

Why is it called the “standard” deviation?

I have a simple - and possibly obviously trivial - question: why is the standard deviation called just that, "standard"? Is it because it standardizes the comparison of data sets and results with ...
5
votes
2answers
535 views

Etymology of “cluster” in the context of cluster analysis

I'm trying to track down the origins of the word "cluster" and its usage in the context of cluster analysis. Please, does anyone know when and by whom it was first used? Perhaps there was a paper or ...
1
vote
1answer
114 views

Who invented dummy variables?

A long time ago I surfed the web and I look a piece of information about the inventors of dummy variables. I recall they were two american economists (father and son). I have tried to find that ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo to compute the chances that a particular solitaire laid out with 52 cards would come out successfully

Based on some references I got from another question I learned that: While convalescing from an illness in 1946, Stan Ulam was playing solitaire. It, then, occurred to him to try to compute the ...
1
vote
1answer
87 views

Who is the creator or inventor of coefficient of determination (R-squared)?

Who is the creator or inventor of coefficient of determination (R-squared) ? I know that Galton invented correlation.
1
vote
1answer
178 views

Do I need to be a mathematician to be more than an expert in machine learning? [closed]

Machine learning has its roots principally in mathematics so if I wanted to be not only an expert but an innovator in this area would I have to be a computer scientist or would I need to be a ...
4
votes
2answers
98 views

What is the famous data set that looks totally different but has similar summary stats?

There is a famous example of a collection of datasets with similar summary statistics like mean, standard deviation etc., whose visual appearances are totally different. It is named after the famous ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Early electric perceptron [closed]

As I was reading up about the perceptron, wikipedia has a tidbit that says an early prototype of the perceptron had potentiometers for weights and servos to change the weights. Would any one have a ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Who first suggested to approximate phases from a time series via marker events?

A rather simple approach to approximating an instantaneous (unwrapped) phase $φ$ from a time series is as follows: Define some a appropriate marker events (e.g., upwards zero crossings) $t_0 < … ...
4
votes
0answers
106 views

Did the Eggenberger-Pólya (1923) paper derive the negative binomial distribution with real-valued parameter?

The negative binomial distribution can be derived in many ways, but two famous ones are due to Greenwood & Yule (1920) and Eggenberger & Pólya (1923). Greenwood & Yule assumed unobserved ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Cross correlation using photographic film

I used to work for a guy who told me about working for an oil company, probably in the 1960's, doing cross correlation work by sliding two pieces of developed film strips across each other (maybe they ...
6
votes
1answer
122 views

What are some good references on how probability theory got mathematically rigorous?

I am working on a term paper for an analysis course and I thought it would be interesting to talk about the connection between analysis and probability theory. Honestly, it would also benefit me a lot ...
9
votes
1answer
129 views

Reference for a story about sampling from the phone book

I was talking with someone today about sampling and vaguely remember a story about some very well-respected statistician recommending systematic sampling from the phone book in a particular legal ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

When was importance sampling first stated?

I'm trying to find a year of publication of the importance sampling technique. Does anyone has a reference on this? I'm tempted to say 1970 (Hastings paper), but I would like to know if anyone knew ...
39
votes
5answers
2k views

Is the “hybrid” between Fisher and Neyman-Pearson approaches to statistical testing really an “incoherent mishmash”?

There exists a certain school of thought according to which the most widespread approach to statistical testing is a "hybrid" between two approaches: that of Fisher and that of Neyman-Pearson; these ...
4
votes
2answers
168 views

odds ratio: the purpose and interpretation

Could someone please explain the purpose of the odds ratio and how it could be interpreted (i.e., the origin of their usage is in primary interest for me)? Why don't people simply use the difference ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Proof / derivation of skewness and kurtosis formulas

Can anyone explain to me where the formula of skewness or kurtosis comes from? (I mean its derivation.) What's the logic behind it? Who proved it?
9
votes
2answers
688 views

History: the role of statistics in astronomy

I recently boldly claimed in front of a group of fairly smart eighth grade students that astronomy contributed greatly to the foundations of statistics and many statistical concepts were invented for ...
4
votes
1answer
106 views

Example of the impact of statistical inference in society

When giving a talk or explaining my latest results, several colleagues of mine downsize the importance of the statistical analysis part as being "only statistics". In my opinion, the impact of ...
28
votes
3answers
6k views

How exactly did statisticians agree to using (n-1) as the unbiased estimator for population variance without simulation?

The formula for computing variance has $(n-1)$ in the denominator: $s^2 = \frac{\sum_{i=1}^N (x_i - \bar{x})^2}{n-1}$ I've always wondered why. However, reading and watching a few good videos about ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

How did Karl Pearson come up with the chi-squared statistic?

How did Pearson come up with the following Pearson chi-squared statistics in 1900? $$ K = \sum \frac{(O_{ij} -E_{ij})^2}{E_{ij}} $$ that $$ K \sim \chi^2 $$ Did he have chi-squared in mind and ...
2
votes
1answer
564 views

History of Mendeleev periodic table of elements as a data visualization

I am looking for a comprehensive and authoritative reference (journal article or book) dealing with the history of Mendeleev periodic table of elements as a data visualization. I am especially ...
2
votes
1answer
832 views

How did Efron imagine the bootstrap?

Do you know Bradley Efron? He's a great man. How did Efron imagine or think about "bootstrap" for the first time?
11
votes
2answers
2k views

Why are the geometric distribution and hypergeometric distribution called as such?

Why are the geometric distribution and hypergeometric distribution called "geometric" and "hypergoemetric" respectively? Is it because their pmfs take some special form? Thanks!
10
votes
2answers
347 views

Why did Thomas Bayes find Bayes' theorem so challenging?

This is more of a history of science question, but I hope it's on-topic here. I've read that Thomas Bayes only managed to discover Bayes' theorem for the special case of a uniform prior, and even ...
4
votes
1answer
103 views

Where does the term “covariate” come from in statistics?

Wikipedia has an acceptable definition of covariate, which matches exactly the Dictionary of Epidemiology. According to Webster, the first known use was in 1965. But the Google n-gram viewer has it ...
8
votes
2answers
280 views

Fisher for dummies?

Short version: is there an introduction to Ronald Fisher's writings (papers and books) on statistics that is aimed at those with little or no background in statistics? I'm thinking of something like ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

“grouped error distribution”?

I can't figure out the meaning of emphasized phrase in the following: Representing a grouped error distribution by a multinomial distribution, Simpson (1756), Langrange (1776), and Laplace (1776) ...
4
votes
1answer
131 views

Where to find data on the use of statistical methods in Psychology?

I'm trying to find out, how the use of statistical methods in Psychology have been changing through history. For example, are regression models more popular now than ten years ago? When did simple ...
5
votes
1answer
883 views

Timeline of machine learning and data mining breakthroughs

Is there any timeline or historical overview of the most important breakthroughs in machine learning and data mining?
7
votes
2answers
337 views

What are some good resources for the history of time series analysis?

I have checked out the answer to this question on stats.stackexchange: What are good resources providing a history of statistics? Indeed, the Stigler book "Statistics on the Table" looks excellent ...
62
votes
9answers
8k views

Regarding p-values, why 1% and 5%? Why not 6% or 10%?

Regarding p-values, I am wondering why 1% and 5% seem to be the gold standard for "statistical significance". Why not other values, like 6% or 10%? Is there a fundamental mathematical reason for ...
13
votes
1answer
626 views

What statistical methods are archaic and should be omitted from textbooks? [closed]

In answering a question about a confidence interval for a binomial proportion I pointed out the fact that the normal approximation is an unreliable method that is archaic. It should not be taught as a ...
6
votes
1answer
253 views

What was Student's (Gosset's) contribution in formulating the t-test?

A recent question, related question, and cited source, recently made me aware that the $N-1$ correction for sample estimates of population variance is referred to as Bessel's correction. Bessel was ...
2
votes
1answer
93 views

What principled arguments are made with data?

Consider the frequentist argument: "I will believe A since not-A makes the data improbable". Consider the Bayesian argument: "I will believe A since given my beliefs on A and the data generating ...
3
votes
4answers
363 views

Who are some famous USSR/Russian Statistics/probability academic researchers? [closed]

Who are some famous USSR/Russian Statistics/probability academic researchers? Are russian (current Russia and former USSR) strong in this field academically?
1
vote
2answers
179 views

Data analysis on multiuser environment

I have following environment that I'd like to analyze. My company is divided in two teams: Insert Team (composed by 150 persons) Quality Check Team (composed by 10 persons) Suppose that all ...