# Tagged Questions

Events (or random variables) are independent when information on some of them tells you nothing about the probability of occurrence (/ distribution) of the others. Please DO NOT use this tag for independent variable use [predictor] instead.

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### When does the law of large numbers hold for RVs from a distribution with infinite variance?

Under what conditions does the law of large numbers hold (or fail, if that is easier to describe) for independent identically distributed random variables drawn from a distribution with a finite mean ...
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### How to estimate dependency or in-dependency between variables [on hold]

Is it possible to estimate "the rate/degree (or something similar)" if there is dependency between 4 different types of variables that are categorical. If the 5th variable is a outcome variable(the ...
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### How to interpret Fisher Test?

How do I interpret the odds ratio for this fisher test output in R? ...below is my matrix that I input into fisher.test in R: ...and below this is the output of the test in R:
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### Independence of errors in fixed effects regression

I am trying to run a fixed effects regression and am currently testing assumptions. This probably is rather a "beginner question", but how do I test the assumption of independence of errors for ...
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### Independence of observations violated

I discovered a (probably) major flaw in my research design. I am examining investors and their investment performance. Or in other words, I want to investigate if some investors are better than ...
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### With categorical data, can there be clusters without the variables being related?

When trying to explain cluster analyses, it is common for people to misunderstand the process as being related to whether the variables are correlated. One way to get people past that confusion is a ...
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### Null distribution of fisher's exact test; where the nullity is used?

For 2x2 contingency table, we can test independence of row and column variables by using Fisher's exact test where we assume all marginals are fixed. ...
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### Notion of “the same” distribution in definitions of “iid” and “exchangable”

Schervish's (1995) Theory of Statistics defines exchangeability like this (p. 7): A finite set $X_1, …, X_n$ of random quantities is said to be exchangeable if every permutation of $(X_1, …, X_n)$ ...
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### Probabilities concerning incoming calls at a call center and a question of independence

I work at a call center in a department where we receive two grades of calls: A and B. 15% of our calls are grade A, and 85% are grade B. Only two people work in my specific department, me and my co-...
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### Combining independent observables for the same quantity, how to check independence

Let's assume we have a set of observations $\{x_i\}$ of a physical quantity $x$. We have a model $x=X(y)$, where $y$ is a free parameter. Let's assume that we have two distinct observables, $f(x)$ and ...
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### If distance correlation $DCOR(X,Y) = 0.5$ then are X and Y dependent or independent?

If distance correlation $DCOR(X,Y) = 0.5$ then are $X$ and $Y$ statistically dependent or independent? What about when $DCOR(X,Y) > 0$, are they statistically dependent for sure even when it's less ...