Data, events, processes, etc, are non-independent if knowledge of 1 provides some information about the state or value of the other.

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Non-independent variables (covariates) in survival analysis

I want to perform survival analysis, and compare at which of 3 spatial scales habitat variables affect the most nest survival. I thought to perform analysis separately for each spatial scale and ...
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13 views

Ordinal Dependent Variable and Ordinal Independent Variable. Which test to perform analysis with?

I have a question regarding Ordinal data. I have measured 'Attitude towards a product' using Likert scale and I have measured 'Purchase Intentions to buy the product' also using Likert scale. Now I ...
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13 views

Probability distribution for a binomial proportion 'derived' from serially dependent data

Consider the following type of data: This is data from a single-case experiment: an experiment in which one entity (i.e. one person) is observed repeatedly over time (cf. measurement times 1 to ...
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2answers
16 views

Hypothesis test for mutually exclusive samples from a single population?

Let's say I gave 100,000 people a survey on their favorite fruit, where they can bubble in "Apple" or "Pear" (but not both). They can also leave it blank. The results are 90,000 people left it blank, ...
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39 views

Analysis: Dependable variable depends on previous decision

My situation is as follows: Respondents in my questionnaire had the option to take money (anything from 0-10). In the end, they were advised to take that money out of an envelope. This process was not ...
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27 views

Cross- correlation between two non-stationary time series

I have two time series that are growing together. I want to measure if these series are growing similarly together with some lag. Originally, I was thinking I would just take the cross-correlation ...
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9 views

Hypothesis Testing $\mu_{..}$ vs $\mu_{i.}$ for all $i$ In Context of Sample Surveys

I have been tasked with creating a table of p-values, where each cell is a p-value testing $\mu_{..}$ = $\mu_{i.}$, for each level of $i$. Essentially, $\mu_{..}$ is total average and $\mu_{i.}$ is an ...
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17 views

About the Randomized Dependence Coefficient

In the paper The Randomized Dependence Coefficient, authors introduce a novel dependence coefficient which seem to be quite generic and powerful compared to what is present in the literature. It is ...
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14 views

Comparing dependent pearson's r coefficients - second level

I would like to test whether activation in condition A is more similar to activation in condition B or C. Activation is measured by sampling every two seconds throughout the experiment, and all three ...
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1answer
35 views

Comonotonic and Countermonotonic RV's and their relation to Frechet Hoeffding Bounds

If $F_1 ... F_d$ are are all continuous, and $X_j \sim F_j$, $j= 1...d$, then the Frechet upper bound corresponds to comonotonic random variables with $$ X_j = F^{-1}_j(F_1(X_1)) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ [1] ...
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23 views

dependent random number generation (if Condition1 is true, increase probability of Condition2 by X%)

In real life, a failure of an item increases the probability of failure of the next functional item in some cases. What I want to learn is how to reflect this situation in a MC simulation ...
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16 views

Combining unbiased hit rates

I am analysing data on an emotion perception task, where participants must decide if a given face is happy, sad, angry or fearful (essentially a forced choice between 4 options). I am confident that ...
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91 views

Difference of two squared normal dependent variables

I need to find the distribution of the random variable $Z$ $Z = \frac{(X - \mu_0)^2}{\sigma_0^2} - \frac{(X - \mu_1)^2}{\sigma_1^2}$, where $X \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu_0, \sigma_0)$. We can find the ...
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6 views

Intra-observation dependence test

I have an observation matrix of size $200 \times 50$ where $200$ is the number of observations and $50$ is the number of variables. I think the data has some kind of intra-observation dependence. For ...
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29 views

Predicting time to failure with time varying cofators

The Goal I am modeling Hospital Length of Stay. More specifically, I would like to predict the number of days until a patient is discharged given all of the patients clinical factors throughout ...
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17 views

Contingency testing in geographic data with the issue of independence?

How can I test contingency between two variables in geographic data with the issue of independence? I have a column of fire frequency and a column of vegetation change but do not think a simple chi ...
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34 views

Does the degree to which events are independent increase as the number of events increase?

I'm considering a problem of independence of events. Specifically, I am considering whether events are more independent the greater the number of events. Two examples might help. Example 1: There ...
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1answer
117 views

What is the long run variance?

How is long run variance in the realm of time series analysis defined? I understand it is utilized in the case there is a correlation structure in the data. So our stochastic process would not be a ...
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1answer
45 views

how to test equality of proportions at different times

Here is my question. 20 (worm) mothers produce males + females and hermafrodites (many every hour). I want to test if the proportion of males + females born on day #1 is the same as in days #2 and ...
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10 views

Co-variance matrix and Factor graph representation

I have problem in fundamental understanding of factor graph representation: I am trying understand the relation between the Co-variance matrix and associated factor graph, of a Normally distributed ...
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0answers
11 views

Average-to-average comparison with non normal response variable and dependent explanatory variable

I would like to compare the average expression of a gene in three different brain regions of a mammal (see the table below). Unfortunately, I had only 11 mammals to calculate each average. Moreover ...
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13 views

How do I account for non-independence in occupancy modeling?

I have conducted a survey to look at why badgers are visiting some gardens but not others. I have data on badger presence / absence and garden features that might influence badger presence in that ...
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41 views

Logistic Regression Model with Non-Independent Regressors

I'm looking to create a model that takes into account multiple logistic variables in an ordered process. To illustrate, what I'm trying to do is similar to the following: ...
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1answer
32 views

Dependent or Independent samples? I cant decide! Help

I'm confused i have assignment where i have to determine if the samples are dependent or independent. The sample is of 100 people, where their reaction times from their dominate and non-dominate hands ...
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1answer
49 views

Are two variables that are dependent also correlated? / Can two dependent variables not be correlated? [duplicate]

I cannot find the answer to my question anywhere, I hope someone can help. I did a Chi-Square test with several variables to see if they were dependent or independent. The result showed that they ...
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17 views

Proving dependence of two variables

I am working on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). As can be seen, U and E determine A. A and U determine BI, and BI determines the Actual System Use. Based on the constructs given in the ...
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23 views

Population version of Kendall's Tau Equation

I am reading about concordance and Kendall's Tau. I understand both concepts from an intuitive level. The empirical formula for Kendall's tau is given by: $$ t = \frac{c-d}{c+d} $$, where c is the ...
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1answer
34 views

Analyzing multiple, within-subjects, non-independent ordinal rankings

So I'm working with some previously collected data where participants (N=139) were asked to rank 3 types of events (1 being best, 3 being worst) for 6 separate scenarios. The question of interest is ...
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87 views

Empirical distribution function of overlapping time series data

If we model asset return volatility for periods of more than one (say more than one day) there is the square-root rule which holds true under some assumptions. On the other hand practitioners ...
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1answer
44 views

Continuous joint entropy with fully dependent variable

Consider a variable $X$ with a continuous uniform distribution in the interval $[a,b]$ and a variable $Y$ that is fully dependent on $X$, i.e., $p(Y=y\ |\ X=x) = \delta (x-y)$, where $\delta$ is a ...
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1answer
207 views

PDF of dependent variables

In my recent question an answer was given, and I am able to compute it myself. Still, I'd like to understand where does that answer come from. Hence, what's the approach to handle dependent variables ...
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1answer
379 views

Why do mixed effects models resolve dependency?

Say we're interested in how student exam grades are affected by the number of hours that those students study. To explore this relationship, we could run the following linear regression: $$ ...
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15 views

Multivariate distributions, k-margin's, Bayesian Networks, and dependency

Suppose that we have a multivariate probability distribution with four variables, X, Y, Z, and W. Let us assume that the joint distribution can be factored as follows: $$ f_{X,Y,Z,W}(x,y,z,w) = ...
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103 views

What is the demonstration of the variance of the difference of two dependent variables?

I know that the variance of the difference of two independent variables is the sum of variances, and I can prove it. I want to know where the covariance goes in the other case.
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2answers
52 views

Is the the dependence of the residual of a ARMA time series model only based on AR term?

Lets suppose we fit two time series models AR(1) and ARMA(1,1) to a data series. Should be the results of the ljung-Box test for the residuals be the same for these models? I mean does MA term affect ...
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1answer
19 views

Independent observations, and might this require a repeated measures ANOVA?

below is a text for an assignment i am working on. I am getting really confused thinking about wether the the observations are independent in this example, because all of the people work together and ...
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1answer
41 views

Chi-squared distribution and dependence

We know that for a group of independent random variables $\{X_i\}_{i=1}^n$ s.t each $X_i$ is distributed as a chi-squared distribution with degree of freedom one ($\chi_1^2$), the sum of these random ...
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2answers
118 views

Approaches for generating synthetic survey data with dependent answers?

I would like to produce synthetic survey data. At the moment I produce independent answers between questions according to an arbitrary discrete distribution as in this question. I want to generate ...
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60 views

Chi square test of independence with multivariate nominal data

I used a list-type open-ended question to collect responses, in which respondents can list up to 6 items. After coding the items, I have the multivariate nominal data. I want to check if my IV ...
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37 views

Cumulative distribution function of dependent variables

I have measured packet delays on several different radio channels $c_1, c_2, c_3$ and got three streams of delay data: $d_{11}, d_{12}, d_{13}, \dots$ $d_{21}, d_{22}, d_{23}, \dots$ $d_{31}, ...
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47 views

How to use difference in mean team weight to predict winner of college football game

I think I need a new statistic. I am trying to make the case that the average weight difference between college football teams is related to won-loss record. I am studying the Big 10 and Big 12 ...
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1answer
66 views

How to correlate count variables that are nested / non-independent?

Above is a snapshot of a subset of a larger dataset, N=61. Group is the group number, Iterations is indicating the ...
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1answer
149 views

Plain language meaning of “dependent” and “independent” tests in the multiple comparisons literature?

In both the family-wise error rate (FWER) and false discovery rate (FDR) literature, particular methods of controlling FWER or FDR are said to be appropriate to dependent or independent tests. For ...
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16 views

Mantel Test? correlation between two variables measured at four sites over four sessions

I am looking for a way of testing and measuring the correlation between two variables (Var1 and Var2) collected at four sites through four sessions (each one at the same time). Thus, due mainly to ...
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0answers
70 views

Hypothesis testing with non-iid observations

I have a dataset with observations which violate the independent and identically distributed (iid) assumption. The dataset is composed by a number of post-click conversion events (purchases on a ...
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1answer
49 views

How to test paired observations

I have a set of data that look like this: ...
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1answer
47 views

Analysis of clustered data

I have records of $multiple$ visits from many different patients in several different clinics (i.e. visits nested within patients nested within clinic) and plan to perform an analysis that takes into ...
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40 views

Comparing two correlated dependent variables

I have two dependent variables that I want to predict. One is a normally-distributed continuous variable, and the other is a binary categorical variable (0 or 1). They're moderately correlated so that ...
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1answer
89 views

Asymmetric measure of non-linear dependence/correlation?

I am definitely not a statistician/mathematician so feel free to tell me I'm an idiot if I am. As far as I can tell from my Wikipediaing all of the main measures of dependence are symmetric and ...
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32 views

Differences between reviewers and people being reviewed in terms of learning achievement

An experiment about the review process was made. Participants were students visiting a course. One group had to solve some exercises and the other group had to review their work and give feedback. At ...