# Tagged Questions

"Ordinal" data refers to data with values categorical yet underlying quantitative: the categories can be ordered by magnitude, but the exact magnitude of the spacing between them is undetermined. [Not to be confused with binned interval data where the spacing is known.] Special kinds of analysis ...

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### Classification eda

I am constructing a 2-class classifier and using cross validation to tune certain parameters in my model. The predictor variables are both continuous and one is ordinal. Based on looking at the ...
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### 2X2 Factorial Design with Likert-type Responses

I have a 2x2 design completely between subjects. Both independent variables are dichotomous. The dependent variable is a 7 point Likert-type item. But I'm not sure how to analyze it. I know ANOVA, ...
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### Recoding Ordinal Variables to Binary: Justifiable?

Suppose I have a model $Y = \alpha + \beta X$ where I am interested in the point estimate and hypothesis testing for $\beta$. Furthermore, $Y$ is an ordinal variable taking on a small number of value ...
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### Using polychoric correlation with non normal ordinal data

I have ordinal data on scale 1-5 for detected pollutants in water (1 = detectable in small proportions; 5= detectable in higher proportions; also 0 was asaigned - not detectable). based on the ...
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### Ordinal Alpha Reliability: Is Re-Ranking Appropriate?

I'm a researcher currently based in New Delhi where I'm helping adapt and validate a psychometric questionnaire. For this I need help with fixing the error in calculating ordinal alpha in R using the ...
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### Significance of effects in analysis of ordinal data with cumulative link models

I'm trying to analyse some repeatead measurements where the "dependent" variable is ordinal. As far as I've understood the literature I've read so far the correct way to go is cumulative link mixed ...
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### Ordered categorical variable dummy coding

Basic question, does the following coding for ordered categorical variables make sense?1 ...
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### what am i supposed to do if realiability test not up to 0.7?

hye. i have gathered 147 questionnaires with 39 variables the requirement for my research department need me to make the reliability test up to 0.7 or else it consider not reliable. i have tried ...
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### Comparing multiple items measured with ordinal scale

I have 20 items measured with 7 point ordinal scale by roughly 200 of respondents such that every item's relative importance was assessed by every respondent. Item example: What is the importance of ...
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### CLMM Output interpretation from R Ordinal

Problem description question is at the end: I am testing to see what factors are responsible for vegetation change over a large landscape over a period of 100 years. The response variable is an ...
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### How to interpret estimated coefficient of ordered logit regression which has a negative value

What is the interpretation of the negative estimate ($b$ value) in an ordered logit regression? That is, an "increase of one unit in the independent variable results in an increase or decrease of the ...
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### Categorical PCA: Merge categories based on Transformation Plots?

A tutorial on categorical pca (CATPCA) (Linting et al. 2012) explains that a decision to merge categories of an ordinal variable can be made based on the category quantification ("none of the ...
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### Appropriate statistical method for rank ordered/preference data where response on one variable depends on the other

I have a dataset of six variables that represent respondents' ranking to six different stimuli. Each respondent ranked this stimuli in order of preference from 1 to 6. This means that each row of a ...
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### Which regression to use with a dependente variable which is the sum of six ordinal scores

I need to study which variables influence the change in a score after a treatment. The problem is that the score (from 0 to 18) is actually the sum of six 4-levels (0 to 3) ordinal variables which ...
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### Options for PCA for ordinal data (in addition to CATPCA)?

When developing an instrument involving ordinal data (likert scale with 5-6 response levels), how does one reduce the initial item pool before completing the exploratory factor analysis? I have seen ...
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### Is there Factor analysis or PCA for ordinal or binary data?

I have completed the principal component analysis (PCA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), treating data with likert scale (5-level responses: none, a little, ...
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### Hypothesis test for correlation between ordinal and continuous variable

I would like to test the relationship between an ordinal variable (stress level, a ranking from 1 'not stressful' to 5 'very stressful') and a continuous scale (academic performance, CGPA). What ...
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### CFA power analysis using existing Likert-type data with lavaan and simsem in R

To preface, this is my first foray into CFA and SEM, so please forgive me as I am likely making a number of unwitting mistakes. I am currently working on a study to validate a proposed psychometric ...
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### Correlation between reaction times and ordinal ratings

I conducted a psychological experiment and now I'm starting to evaluate the data. During evaluation I found something, that looks like a correlation between reaction times of one task and ordinal ...
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### Pearson r or Spearman correlation to use for ordinal variable with interval variable?

I need to establish correlation coefficients between an independent ordinal variable (the scores are computed with the use of Likert scales) with an interval dependent variable (test scores). May I ...
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### Identifiability of ordered regression cutpoints

I have an ordered regression model as described in ?polr: The ordered factor which is observed is which bin Y_i falls into with breakpoints zeta_0 = -Inf ...
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### Help interpreting interaction terms in proportional cumulative logistic regression- ordinal regression

I am using the polr() function in R to analyze the relationship between a students score on their first exam, their score in their prerequisite course, and their beginning of semester GPA on their ...
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### Regression technque to use for continuous data behaving like ordinal

I am trying to create a model to explain/predict fulfillment ratio of a product by a store i.e orders placed divided by orders delivered.The QQ-plot of the fulfillment ratio is: The QQ-plot of the ...
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### ANCOVA with ordinal covariate?

My study looks at the effects of sex on performance in a psychological task. There are 3 variables: sex (m/f), plus 2 within-subjects factors (with 2 and 3 levels), so it's a 2x2x3 repeated-measures ...
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### simple statistical test for longitudinal ordinal data

New researcher here. What statistical test do I use to compare scores (on the general self efficacy scale) over time (12 times total including pre-test) to test a single intervention? It's a simple ...
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### Testing Proportional Odds Assumptions

I am working in R with a response variable that is the letter grade the student received in a specific course. The response is ordinal, and, in my opinion, seems logically proportional. My ...
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### Is there any conventional small, medium and large effect sizes for ordinal logistic regression?

I was performing a power analysis of articles published in a journal of management using the pwr package in R. However, it seemed to be impossible to compute power ...
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### Deep Learning for Ordinal Classification

Can we use any of the various types of Deep Neural Networks for Ordinal Classification? If yes, then how? If no, then what is the limiting problem? I know that CovNets with a softmax output can be ...
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### How to get correlation of each predictor to response

I am wondering how can I get the correlation from one predictor to a repsonse when I am looking at a given data set with many predictors. For example, the output of GLM in R would be exactly what I ...
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### Selecting a loss-function for k-fold cross-validation over shrinkage parameter

I am doing a penalized regression with categorical (ordinal) outcomes. I would like to select the shrinkage parameter $\lambda$ on the basis of cross-validation (CV). In this case, I have 50k ...
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### testing multiple paired ordinal measures

Please give me advice on a robust way to evaluate multiple ordinal measures. I have a group of n subjects who have a treatment for spasticity (abnormal muscle stiffness). A measure of spasticity is ...
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### Can I use proportion data and continous data for estimate of Spearman' s rho ? what if monotonic relatioship does not come out for a dataset ?

I want to use Spearman's rho test on proportional data for one variable and continuous data for the second variable (e.g. % survival of fish related to concentration of arsenic)? Further I want to ...
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### Nonparametric test for discovering a unimodal distribution?

I am doing a literature review. I want to count how many times a given HCI concept has been found to have some effect (strong, medium, weak or none, with negative effects that's an ordinal scale with ...
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### Negative coefficients for ordinal logistic regression in R

I am trying to model my dependent variable (ordinal - three levels) using a set of independent variables (5 ordinal and 10 numeric). I am using lrm function in "rms"...
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### How to deal with failing the proportional odds assumption in ordinal logistic regression

I am attempting to do ordinal logistic regression but I keep failing to pass the proportional odds assumption. Almost all of my features are shown to have high significance, but the only model that I ...
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### How can I combine nominal with ordinal data to build a unique variable?

I performed an Interview with 44 questions Protocol. The structure of questions is based on 18 variables. Major variables are coming from theory. Every major variable consists of 3,4 or more question ...
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### What is the way to report effect size for an ordinal logistic regression?

I am very new to working with ordinal logistic regression models and I was wondering what is the best/most appropriate way to report effect sizes for these models. I am using the polr function from ...
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### How to perform a multivariate-regression on all ordinal variables

I'm trying to do some analysis on the effect of the economy on voting behavior for my undergraduate dissertation. I am relatively new to statistics and trying to get to grips with it, but currently ...
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### How to interpret coefficients in ordinal logistic regression with partially relaxed proportional odds/parallel lines assumption?

Suppose I estimate an ordinal logistic regression model: $Y$ ~ $\beta_1X + \beta_2Z$ where $Y$ is the ordinal-scale dependent variable with $y = 1, 2...k$ responses. $X$ and $Z$ are independent ...
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### Ordinal Logistic Regression - Strange Results

I've been having struggling with the analysis of ordinal categorical data that I have (against 3 binary categorical explanatory variables). The problem is that for one of my data sets,running ordinal ...
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### Use categorical variable vs create dichotomous variable for each one?

I would like to know whether I should/shouldn't split a categorical variable into separate dummy variables for an OLS regression. For example, I am regressing income on education using data from the ...
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### Why can't we use linear regression for discrete Y?

This text is from An Introduction to Statistical Learning with Applications in R(by • Gareth James • Daniela Witten • Trevor Hastie • Robert Tibshirani) List item Can anyone help me by making linear ...
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### Ordinal outcome survey regularization and variable selection

I am analyzing some survey data with many thousands of respondants. My main dependent variable of interest is a three-level Likert scale (very/pretty/not-so-much). I have ~50 predictors. I would like ...
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### I have 12 items to get into a single rank order. Can I get this from having a few hundred people see a set of 10 of the possible pairs of items?

I attempted to run a study where people had to rank order 12 statements from best to worst. However, it was extremely messy and difficult for people to rank that many items. Now, my professor and I ...
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### R CLMM: Reaching Iteration Limit for Random Effects

I have a dataset with the characteristics of 10001 applications from a major app store. The apps have been repeatedly observed for 14 weeks. In total I have 140014 observations. (There are missings ...
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### Popular (single) imputation methods for ordinal variable

I am setting up a monte carlo simulation study in R for a comparison between several imputation methods for ordinal variables. So far, I am planning to use the following imputation methods: Multiple ...
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### Correlation between interval and ordinal data

I am performing analysis to establish the correlation between personality (self-rated) and competency performance (line manager rated). The personality domains are the 'Big 5' and have been created ...
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### Correlation between Ordinal scale and multiple response question/ tick all that apply

I am trying to correlate the Ordinal scale variable, that is: Mother's education( Lower, Medium, and High) with the "career choice question, with multiple response option (tick all that apply).... How ...
Given a set of objects $\{x_1,x_2,\dots,x_n\}$ we can define an order to them and re-arrange them in that order. For example, if $n$ objects in the set and we define the object $x_i$ to be the integer ...