# Tagged Questions

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### Three open philosophical problems in statistics

I recently finished reading The Lady Tasting Tea, a fun book about the history of statistics. At the end of the book, the author, David Salsburg, proposes three open philosophical problems in ...
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### Reversing Chebyshev inequality argument

One way one could state Chebyshev's inequality is The probability that a realization deviates from the mean more than $k$ standard deviations is at most $\frac{1}{k^2}$. My question is: Can ...
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### Modelling with multiple-valued variables

I am about to start out analysis of a microbiological data set (ETEC: enterotoxic echerichia coli in children with diarrhea). The variables refer to the ETEC, not to the children. Some of the ...
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### Open source libraries in Science [duplicate]

Is it a good or a bad practice to use R packages from CRAN for research? I'm talking about the common packages like: simple models for regression, estimation, econometrics Most of them use function ...
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### Why are lower p-values not more evidence against the null?

Johansson 2011 states that lower p-values are often considered as stronger evidence against the null. Johansson implies that people would consider evidence against the null to be stronger if their ...
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### When is a fixed effect truly fixed?

Consider a linear unobserved effects model of the type: $$y_{it} = X_{it}\beta + c_{i} + e_{it}$$ where $c$ is an unobserved but time-invariant characteristic and $e$ is an error, $i$ and $t$ index ...
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### Online resources for philosophy of causation for causal inference

Can you recommend any books, articles, essays, online tutorials/courses, etc that would be interesting and useful for an epidemiologist/biostatistician to learn about the philosophy of ...
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### Statistics, Expected values and Philosophy

First a note: I am not a statistician. I studied maths at university (but opted out of every single stats class), and now find myself in a job where I'm doing stats. My question is a little bit ...
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### Meaning of hypothesis test for “μ = 25”; isn't it impossible?

I'm working through a stats textbook and have a question of the form: You will perform a significance test of $H_0: μ=25$ based on an SRS of $n=25$. Assume $σ=5$. I'm stuck on the 'equals' part ...
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### What principled arguments are made with data?

Consider the frequentist argument: "I will believe A since not-A makes the data improbable". Consider the Bayesian argument: "I will believe A since given my beliefs on A and the data generating ...
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### Are there any other interpretations besides bayesian and frequentist?

I am aware of the frequentist and bayesian interpretations of statistics. I prefer Bayesian because I think it's closer to how people think, and because we in practice often can't rerun a trial a ...
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### Should false discovery be controlled at the data acquisition level, or should this be at the data interpretation level?

Should false discovery be controlled at the data acquisition level, or should this be at the data interpretation level? I have an experiment in which microarrays were used to quantify the expression ...
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### Why is statistics useful when many things that matter are one shot things?

I don't know if it's just me, but I am very skeptical of statistics in general. I can understand it in dice games, poker games, etc. Very small, simple, mostly self-contained repeated games are ...
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### Must there be “an effect to be mediated” in mediational analysis (i.e., must IVs & DVs be correlated)?

Baron and Kenny outlined several steps to aid in determining if a mediational analysis is appropriate to test a particular hypothesis. The very first step was "Show that the initial [independent] ...
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### Statistical intuition/data sense

I am a second-year undergraduate student, studying Math, and I've been talking to one of my professors a good amount about the difference between mathematical ability and statistical ability. One of ...
539 views

### Confidence interval and probability - where is the error in this statement?

If someone makes a statement like below: "Overall, nonsmokers exposed to environmental smoke had a relative risk of coronary heart disease of 1.25 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.17 to ...
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### Inductive vs deductive Inference

I am curious to know exactly, what are the (possible) differences between inductive and deductive statistical inferences in applied statistics. Suggestions for some good resources to learn their ...
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### If you use a point estimate that maximizes $P(x | \theta)$, what does that say about your philosophy? (frequentist or Bayesian or something else?)

If somebody said "That method uses the MLE the point estimate for the parameter which maximizes $\mathrm{P}(x|\theta)$, therefore it is frequentist; and further it is not Bayesian." would you ...
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### Entropy-based refutation of Shalizi's Bayesian backward arrow of time paradox?

In this paper, the talented researcher Cosma Shalizi argues that to fully accept a subjective Bayesian view, one must also accept an unphysical result that the arrow of time (given by the flow of ...
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### What is the fiducial argument and why has it not been accepted?

One of the late contributions of R.A. Fisher was fiducial intervals and fiducial principled arguments. This approach however is nowhere near as popular as frequentist or Bayesian principled arguments. ...
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### Where did the frequentist-Bayesian debate go?

The world of statistics was divided between frequentists and Bayesians. These days it seems everyone does a bit of both. How can this be? If the different approaches are suitable for different ...
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### How are we defining 'reproducible research'?

This has come up in a few questions now, and I've been wondering about something. Has the field as a whole moved toward "reproducibility" focusing on the availability of the original data, and the ...
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### Which one is the null hypothesis? Conflict between science theory, logic and statistics?

I am having difficulties understanding the underlying logic in setting the null hypothesis. In this answer the obviously generally accepted proposition is stated that the null hypothesis is the ...