A random variable or stochastic variable is a value that is subject to chance variation (i.e., randomness in a mathematical sense).

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Sum of dependent R.V

I have two random variables whose PDF are parameterized by an unknown constant as follows: P(A;d) P(B;d) apparently, these two are not independent, so to find P(A+B;d) one cannot use convolution. ...
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33 views

sum of correlated random sample

Suppose I have 1000 draws each of two random variables X and Y. If I wanted to sample the sum of these variables, I would simply calculate 1000 samples, i.e. $$ S_{i}=X_{i}+Y_{i}, i=1,2,…,1000 $$ ...
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11 views

G and R matrices in mixed model and model selection

I have data in which the plants were subjected to four conditions and measured weekly for a month. I would like to incorporate "plot" as a random factor into my linear mixed model using SPSS. I am ...
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29 views

Independence of functions of Random variables [on hold]

I am working with two RV's X and Y X is distributed normally with mean=x and variance=x^2 Y is distributed uniform (0,1) I know this... ...
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41 views

Covariance of a compound distribution

I am trying to find the covariance of a compound distribution. Given $X=x$, where $X \sim \mathrm{Uniform}(0,1)$, $Y$ is (conditionally) normally distributed with mean $x$ and variance $x^2$. I ...
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25 views

Bayesian Network

I am preparing for midterm exam and need to know what is the step by step solution to this question? Answer is shown in red. Also any external related link is very much appreciated.
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89 views

How to prove dependence of random variables

I need to solve the following problem. Let $X$ be a normal random variable with mean $\mu$ and standard deviation $\sigma$ and let $I$, independent of $X$, be such that $\mathbb{P}(I = 2) = ...
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14 views

Convergence of Random Variables meaning

What is the intuitive explanation of convergence of random variables? what is meant by saying that a sequence of random variables CONVERGE?
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25 views

Sequence of Random Variables

I am confused about how to approach sequence of random variables that are not identically distributed. For example, consider a sequence $X_1, X_2, \dots, X_n$ with the pdf: $$ f(X_n)= \begin{cases} ...
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21 views

Sampling from a distribution with a margin of error

A survey of a population is taken using sampling. It is determined that 70% prefer option A and 30% prefer option B with a margin of error being 5%. Normally when simulating the process with the ...
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23 views

Number of trials to observe all values of a uniform discrete random variable X with a probability of at least 1-q?

Let X take on p values with equal probability. If n trials are to be conducted to ensure that the probability of not observing any of these p values is less than or equal to q, what is the value of ...
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18 views

Linear Combination of Random Normal Variables

In order to prove that the linear combination of two independent normal distributions(say Z=X+Y) is normal, i am using their MGFs to show that the linear combination also has a similar mgf. This works ...
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38 views

Distribution for $Y = \sqrt{X_1^2 + X_2^2}$, when $X_1, X_2$ are dependent and normally distributed with different variance? [duplicate]

Is there a closed form distribution for the transformation given by $Y = \sqrt{X_1^2 + X_2^2}$, when $X_1, X_2$ are jointly normal but dependent random variables with different variance? OBS: I know, ...
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60 views

Combination of Random Variables Conditional Probability

If A and B are independent discrete random variables and C = A+B, then how should one compute the pmf of P(A|C)? For example, let X be the result from a coin toss(1 or 0 for H and T) and Y be the ...
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1answer
34 views

Probability distribution, unfair coin

An unfair coin which has 0.35 probability to result head is tossed four times. Build and represent graphically the probability distribution and the cumulative ...
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32 views

Are matrix Fisher r.v.s closed under multiplication?

With appropriate parameters, a matrix Fisher distribution provides a distribution over SO(3) (i.e. over rotations in $R^3$). See this MathOverflow post for a few notes describing the distribution. ...
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36 views

Can an a.s. (almost surely) finite random variable be a.s. UNbounded?

I thought that if a random variable, $\eta^2$, is assumed to be a.s. finite, then $\eta^2$ must be a.s. bounded. In the Martingale Central Limit Theorem in Hall & Heyde, they assume this: "let ...
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1answer
67 views

Moment Generating Function of a nonlinear transformation of an exponential random variable

Let $\tau$ be an exponential random variable, with parameter $\lambda$. Let $$ V = \delta^\tau $$ where $0 < \delta <1$. Sorry if this notation seems strange, but it is what I am using, I ...
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31 views

How to find the significantly different groups in Random Effects

I am using a mixed effects model as created here (using dummy data for now) in this R script ...
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120 views

Calculate $\mathbb{E}[Z_i]$ where $Z_i = \min(X_i, Y_{i-1})$, $X \sim Beta(\alpha,1)$

Let $X$ be a IID random variable with support in $[0,1]$ and CDF given by a Beta distribution, i.e. $X \sim \mathrm{Beta}(\alpha,1)$. Let $Z_i = \min(X_i,Y_{i-1})$, $\forall i >1$. I would like to ...
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45 views

Sum of Random Variables

As part of my statistical mechanics class, I'm trying to go through Kardar's statistical physics of particles and I'm having trouble with this one line: Consider the sum $X=\displaystyle ...
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2answers
86 views

Skewness of a random variable that have zero variance and zero third central moment

If I have a random variable $x$, and the only information I know about it are: $$ m_1=E[x]=c, \mu_2=var(x)=0, \mu_3=E[(x-m_1)^3]=0$$ Can I conclude that the function distribution is symmetric about c? ...
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37 views

How is this Negative Binomial Random variable used to solve this problem?

I was looking at the solution to this problem below and I don't understand how they used a negative binomial R.V. to solve the problem. A research study is concerned with the side effects of a new ...
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170 views

Do mean, variance and median exist for a continuous random variable with continuous PDF over the real axis and a well defined CDF?

For a continuous random variable with continuous PDF over the real axis and well defined CDF, are the mean, variance, and median always well defined? Mean and variance do not always exist, e.g. for a ...
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231 views

Expected Value of Random Variable

I'm trying to find the expected value of a random variable $t_i$ which is the solution of $$\epsilon_i=\mu(t_i-t_{i-1})-\sum^{i-1}_{k=1}\frac{\alpha}{\beta}\left(1-e^{-\beta(t_i-t_k)}\right)$$ ...
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38 views

Does the average of the square roots of random variables mean anything?

I recently made a plot for work that used a signed square-root scale on the $y$ axis, for visual clarity. The $y$ observations are impulse response functions (IRF) of vector autoregressions computed ...
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10 views

probability life similarities in a population cross section

I have just read up on Bouchard's Minnesota Twins study that turned up some amazing identical similarities in the lives of some identical twins reared apart. Both had same jobs, married and divorced ...
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28 views

Random variable variance

I have the model $y_i=\beta_1+\beta_2 X_i+ u_i$ where $u_i\sim\text{iid } N(0,\sigma^2)$. I estimate $\beta_1$ and $\beta_2$ by drawing a straight line between the first $(x_1,y_1)$ and last dot ...
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126 views

Applying a variance-stabilizing transform to a fitted function (rather than data)

Outline I'm working with data corrupted by a mixed Poisson-Gaussian noise model (for example with images gathered in astronomy or electron microscopy), and have been using the generalized Anscombe ...
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18 views

Estimating number of intersections between point and polygons

I have a 2D plane (a large rectangle) with a finite size in the x and y direction, which is the field of my problem. The field is covered by $n$ smaller rectangles that are located randomly within ...
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65 views

What is the correct notation if two random variables belong to the same distribution?

I want to explain that both the real and imaginary part of a complex variable follow a zero-mean complex Gaussian distribution. How can I write that? For one variable I'd write $a \sim ...
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probability that a variable is ONE OF the top k out of n when ordered

Suppose ($h_1,h_2,...,h_n$) is an $n\times 1$ vector. Let $h_i=g_iX_i$, where $g_i$ is a non-random variable which can vary across $i$ and $X_i$ is a random variable with Pareto Type I distribution. ...
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125 views

Biased coin toss simulation — which random generator is most appropriate?

I have a doubt whether the uniformly distributed random generator is the most appropriate to use for simulating biased coin toss. ...
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43 views

Conditional variance - $Var(X + U | X) = Var(U)$?

I am wondering if the following equality holds - $Var(X + U | X) = Var(U)$? where $X$ and $U$ are two independent random variables? It seems can we say $Var(X + U | X) = Var(X|X) + Var(U|X) = ...
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Notation: Deterministic Variable, Random Variable, Realization of Random Variable, Function

Is there a standard notation for distinguishing between the following: Random Variables Realizations of Random Variables Deterministic Variables (not random) Functions I am familiar with using ...
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33 views

How to apply the random statement in my model?

i am trying to model the following data in SAS using proc glimmix and i would like feedback if i have modelled my data correctly. My data consist of individual chickens (ID) who are grouped by ...
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2answers
56 views

Probability generating function for negative values of random variables?

What if we have negative integral values for a random variable?Then is it possible to write a probability generating function for it? All definitions I have seen so far is for non negative integer ...
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1answer
21 views

Laplace transform and density

It is true that the Laplace transform of a (positive) random variable characterises that random variable, just like its density? ($L_X(z) = E(exp(-Xz))$)
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Largest eigenvalue of this random 2x2 matrix

Consider four random complex vectors $\mu_i$ of length $K$ whose entries are drawn from the complex normal distribution $\mathcal{CN}(\mathbf{0},\mathbb{1})$ centered in zero and of unit variance. ...
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20 views

Measure of probability of obtaining a certain $\chi^2$ given the number of trials

I am calculating an equation with several random components a large number of times, and in order to select my final answer I choose that with the minimum value for $\chi^2$. I am hoping to find some ...
3
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1answer
97 views

Squared random variable $X^2$ vs $X\times X$

As I understand a random variable represents all possible outcomes of an experiment with their associated probabilities. Why $X^2$ is understood as squaring outcomes of experiments instead of as ...
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1answer
118 views

If a random variable V is independent of two independent random variables X and Y, how to prove that V is independent of X + Y?

This is question 3.8.4 of An Introduction to Mathematical Statistics and Its Applications, 5th Edition, by Larsen and Marx. This is not homework for a class I am taking now, but might someday be for ...
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1answer
46 views

correlation of two sums of random variables

Imagine two random variables $X$ and $Y$ which are correlated with $\rho = 1$. Both have a mean of $100$ and a standard deviation of $40$. Two other random variables $U$ and $V$ are correlated at ...
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1answer
29 views

Dirichlet sample by normalising Gamma RVs

I know that if you sample $K$ random variables $(X_1, X_2, \dots, X_K)$ from Gamma distributions using shape parameters $(\alpha_1, \alpha_2, \dots \alpha_K)$ and a scale parameter $\theta = 1$ such ...
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1answer
50 views

Rectifier function of random variable

Let $X$ be a random variable with distribution $F_X$ and density $f_X$. Define $$g(x) = \left\{ \begin{array}{lr} x & : x \ge 0\\ 0 & : x < 0 \end{array} \right\}$$ and let ...
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77 views

Probability function of three Random Variables multiplied, solidifying intuition

I ran across this exercise: Let $T$ be a random variable distributed as a $\text{Bernoulli}(p)$, $U$ be a random variable distributed as a $\text{Bernoulli}(q)$ and $W$ be a random variable ...
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61 views

Random variable as a function

I'm reading Schaum's outline of probability, random var. and random processes. In the second chapter they make it clear that a random variable $X$ is not a variable in the traditional sense but ...
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61 views

Markov Chain exercise in an exam

Suppose that $X_1, X_2, X_3... $ is a Markov chain with the following transition matrix: State: | 1 2 3 --+----------- 1 |0.2 0.4 0.4 2 |0.5 0.0 0.5 3 |0.6 0.3 0.1 (forgive my attempt at a ...
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14 views

Choosing levels of random factor in a mixed model

My apologies in advance if this question is as much about experimental design as it is about statistics. I'd like to know if there is a "best" way to choose levels of a random factor in a mixed model. ...
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58 views

Are explanatory variables considered random in PCA?

One of properties of PCA states that the sum of the variances of the principal components is equal to the sum of the variances of the explanatory variables. I wonder how to interpret this as I've ...