# Tagged Questions

Creating samples from a well-specified population using a probabilistic method and/or producing random numbers from a specified distribution.

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### How does data augmentation reduce overfitting?

I'm trying to understant the benefit apported by the step of data augmentation in a classification algorithm. I have a vector of hexadecimal strings and a column vector containing the label ...
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### Is MCMC really better than raw MC to Sample a region?

I have implemented the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with the Metropolis-Hastings sample selection criteria. Basically, as I understand it and as I have implemented it is: ...
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### About Sampling Technique [on hold]

What sampling techniques would be most appropriate if the researcherâ€™s goal is to make statistical inferences from a sample to the population?
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### Picking tuples from a list with low discrepancy

Given a list of m items, I am looking for a way to repeatedly pick a tuple of n distinct items from this list with low discrepancy. For example, suppose I have a list of 3d points, and I want to ...
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### Can two stage cluster sampling have clusters of size zero?

Can a cluster size be zero in cluster sampling? Say in a two stage cluster sampling, one has unequal cluster sizes with some zero-sized clusters, which means no items will be sampled from the zero-...
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### Bootstrapping a sample from a finite population

Can someone point me to some reference for theory on bootstrapping a sample took from a population of known size? I am used to use Bootstrap to calculate confidence intervals of a sample when the ...
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### Citation of a particular paper discussing the phrase “representative” sample

Some time ago (like decades?) I read a paper that gently explained why the phrase "representative sample" is an unfortunate and misleading usage, and why one should speak of random samples, perhaps in ...
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### sampling from a distribution: other ways than Markov Chain Monte Carlo

I have this density $f(y|z) = \kappa*\exp(-\kappa y) / (1 - \exp(-\kappa z))$, where $\kappa$ is some known value and $0 < y < \kappa$. I get the distribution by integrating with respect to $y$. ...
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### Sampling without Replacement and Non-uniform Distribution

There are $N$ items, numbered $1 \ldots N$. The probability of selecting item $i$ in one draw is $p_i$. Items are drawn without replacement, so after each draw we need to do a re-normalization. Now, ...
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### Sample From a 'Constrained' Distribution

Consider identically distributed random variables $X_1, \dots, X_n$ and a constant $k \in [0,n]$. How would I sample from the distribution  f_{X_1,\dots,X_n}(x_1, \dots, x_n) = c \cdot I[(\sum_{i=...
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### Statistical test for random sample of data

I'm trying to determine if some particular measurements - in this case taken from a subset of genes of interest (50 genes) - show a significant difference to the rest of the population (15000 genes), ...
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### How to sample from a variational autoencoder when KLD is not small?

I am training a variational autoencoder on samples of large size (4-D images of size 224 x 224). I have tried training with many different hyper parameter settings and the average KLD term is not ...
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### Case control study - possible options

Lets assume that I have a two populations ${A, B}$ and they are different in terms of some features such as country. Both samples have fairly large number of ...
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### How to choose the test set size when the training set size is given?

I have data on 64 subjects collected in a medical setting. With the help of ROC curve analysis and bootstrapping, I have identificed two predictors for illness(present or not present) in the group. ...
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### Calculating power of a sample (need a layman's/beginner's definition)?

We have a bi-annual survey and an intended sample size of 1,300. This sample size was determined using Krejcie's means formula for finite populations, and we drew the sample using 2-stage clustering. ...
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### Estimating minimum sample size for item ranking based on frequencies

Assume that we observe some objects (e.g. people, car models, etc.). Our task is to sort objects based on their frequency of observation. For example, Here is the top 5 best-selling cars in America: ...
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### Generating samples from high-dimensional multivariate Gaussian with few training samples

Say I have a $n\times d$ dataset $D$ where $n\ll d$ ($n$ number of observations, $d$ number of dimensions). Currently, if I want $m$ samples from $D$ assuming it is multivariate Gaussian, I can do ...
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### Make two distributions equal

Question in short: How can I make two histograms equal by explicitly downsampling the buckets? More detailed version: I have realizations of sequences of two discrete random variables both giving ...