# Tagged Questions

Scales used to express measurements, usually ratio, interval, ordinal or nominal scales.

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### How to assign weights to frequency scores based on other frequency scores

I have a question concerning the weighting of frequency scores as I am embarking on a rather unusual procedure: I would like to weight these frequency with other frequency scores. I will try my very ...
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### How can you scale Gram matrix for SVM classification?

Why scaling is important for the linear SVM classification? gives a good intuition on why scaling is important when using SVM classification. There are two types of input when using SVM fit method : ...
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### Scaling down 14 month data for 13 month data to 9 month etc

I have one query to scale down my estimated data for 14 months for variable months scale... Now the query is If I scale for first month of 14 set data to first month of 13 month data set= (F1D14*13)/...
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### Scaling after Principal Component Analysis

I am attempting to model the yield of various crops as a function of weather data, namely one temperature variable and 7 moisture-related variables (measuring different aspects of moisture content). ...
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### Unidimensional but not interrelated?

Internal consistency is a necessary but not sufficient condition for homogeneity or unidimensionality - Clark & Watson (1995) In practice, it is possible to have unidimensionality between items ...
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### Likert scale with linear form input control

If I want to collect the order of agreement with a statement in a questionnaire, I’d traditionally use an ordinal Likert scale, most likely with classic 5 points, but maybe 4, 6 or 7 and perhaps with ...
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### Which test to use for associations between 2 IV (nominal+continuous) and 1 DV (continuous)?

I have two independent variables, one of which is in nominal scale (binary), while the second is continuous. I want to determine whether any of the combinations of the two are associated with a change ...
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### Comparing different scale ranges for one Likert scale instrument

I don't believe this exact question has been asked before. I am conducting a meta-analysis on a certain Likert scale survey instrument that has been psychometrically validated. It is a 16 question ...
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### what am i supposed to do if realiability test not up to 0.7?

hye. i have gathered 147 questionnaires with 39 variables the requirement for my research department need me to make the reliability test up to 0.7 or else it consider not reliable. i have tried ...
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### Scale a set of probabilities so their sum is a target value

I have a set of probabilities; e.g. $p = (0.95, 0.9, 0.6)$ I want to scale them up so that their sum moves from $\sum p = 2.45$ to $\sum p^* = 2.5$. I think I need normalise to ensure the rescaled ...
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### Responses to likert scale - how do I work out if the same participants are saying don't know

I have a 10 questions whose responses are on the likert scale (agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, and don't know). I want to work out whether those that selected 'don't know' across all the ...
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### Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) - factor weight score

As title mentioned, how to determine the 'scale of relative importance' point for factor weight score? Besides, I have read some example of ahp saying there are 1-9 point, 1-5 point (1,2,3,4,5) and ...
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### aggregating constructs by Group

This is probably a very basic question; I have a data-frame with a fake questionnaire with three sets of questions measuring three constructs. I'm currently reading some research papers which in ...
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### Measure heterogeneity among multiple samples and scale variables

I would like to know what are the available statistical measures for quantifying heterogeneity on data that look like this... ...
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### likert scale and binary logistic regression [duplicate]

I am working on a project trying to explain adoption of a certain technology. My dependent variable is binary (adoption/non-adoption) and i have several independent variables which are 5 point likert ...
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### Normalizing the Turbulence index to match other indices

I calculated the index of complexity, longitudinal entropy, and turbulence for my data. The first two indicators vary from 0 to 1, whereas turbulence varies between 1 and 16 for one dataset and ...
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### Scaling existing regression coefficients to predict for different dataset

I am tasked with coming up with a way to project customer activity for different groups of customers for 60 months. These groups can be based on a multitude of factors - plans, acquisition channel, ...
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### Can one calculate a general mean for questions that use different scale length?

I have two sets of questions: 1). 5 questions with answer options from 0 to 10 (very unsatisfied to very satisfied) and 2). 9 questions with answer options from 1 to 6 (same meaning) The study was ...
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### T-test on variables with different scales

I have two variables (say x and y) that I want to compare using independent t-test to see if mean(x) > mean(y). The problem is that x (1 to 7) and y (1 to 12) have different scales and sample sizes. ...
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### Statistical questions related to Deep Learning

I have questions regarding this Normalized weights and Initial inputs video on Udacity course Deep Learning. In this video it talks about variables that go into Big-loss function should have zero ...
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### When is the distinction between interval and ratio levels of measurement meaningful?

Considering Steven's classification of levels of measurement, what are the practical situations in which it is relevant to distinguish between ratio and interval scales? What are concrete examples or ...
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### Correspondence between two different depression scales?

I have become involved in a project where psychiatrists are studying the correspondence between two scales measuring the level of depression among a specific patient group. One of the scales is for ...
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### How to find the correct spatial scale in landscape ecology?

I am currently studying the effect of organic farming on honeybee colonies. I have calculated the percentage of organic land in several buffer areas around the hives (from 100m to 3000m in 100m steps) ...
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### Is a glm appropriate with the dependent variable on an interval scale?

Data has to meet some criteria concerning scale if you want to use a GLM. For Ordinally scaled dependent variables GLM's are clearly not appropriate for example. I couldn't find anything which speaks ...
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### How to form multi-item scales after doing a factor analysis

I am doing a content analysis research for bringing out news frames, and decided use Semetko and Valkenburg (2000) method, which consists in developing a set of questions that will help measure ...
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### Missing data and feature scaling

I am interested in doing some feature scaling to try and tease out something from my data (box plots by outcome show that the 25/50/75 quantiles are very similar; certain variables have more "outliers"...
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### Cronbach's alpha internal consistency test for interval scale or ratio scale data with different units

I have recently read dos Santos, S. F. & Brandi, H. S. 2015. Model framework to construct a single aggregate sustainability indicator: an application to the biodiesel supply chain. Clean ...
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### How to plot a Semantic Differential profile in R? [closed]

It looks like it's a problem to find R code for plotting a Semantic Differential profile. The only I hardly found: https://github.com/justineuro/sdRplot. Here is the output example, visit . But it ...
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### Effects in metaanalysis forest plots - what are the conclusions?

In metaanalysis results are often reported in forest plots, where multiple studies are included. Different, continuous outcome scales are used to measure the effect of a treatment on the course of a ...
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### How to extrapolate when feature scaling

Feature scaling refers to a transformation of a variable $x$ so that it lies in range $[0, 1]$: $x' = \frac{x - \text{min}(x)}{\text{max}(x)-\text{min}(x)}$, and it depends on the maximum and ...
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### MLE: Does the scale of predictor variables affect whether the hessian is positive definite?

I am trying to fit a regression via maximum likelihood estimation, one of the regression terms involves $\beta_0e^{(\beta t)}$ where $t$ is measured in hours and has a range of 0 to 90 days. The ...
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### Sum of rating scores vs estimated factor scores?

I'd be interested to receive suggestions about when to use "factor scores" over plain sum of scores when constructing scales. I.e. "Refined" over "non-refined" methods of scoring a factor. From ...
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### RMSE is scale-dependent; is RMSE%?

I've got a graph of RMSE% vs. unit size and it declines nicely. Is this scale-dependence or does the "%" compensate for that?  \text{RMSE%} = 100\% \cdot \frac{\sqrt{\frac{1}{n}\Sigma_{i=1}^n (y_i ...
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### Evaluating a pretreatment predictor with repeated measures ordinal data

I am currently attempting to study whether particular baseline factors predict pre/post changes in relation to a substance use intervention. However, a few things have me stumped. Our substance use ...
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### Is there a correct way of comparing two different 'scales' of the same range?

Is there a correct way of comparing two different scales (for example; data which comes from a 4 option question and data which comes from a 7 option question) given that both datasets have the same ...
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### How to interpret the fit of cfa (sem) outcome?

I did some CFA analyses (using R package Lavaan) on several scales in order to check the unidimensionalities. If I understood well scale 5, 6 and 7 can be considered a good fit because of the RMSEA &...
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### How to calculate the mean of scale with scale and ordinal items measures in SPSS?

I have a scale called - Facebook Intensity Intensity, with 8 items, adapted from https://www.msu.edu/~nellison/TOIL/scales.html 6 out of 8 items are SCALE Measures, but others are ORDINAL as there ...
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### scale and rescale the data predicted from neuralnetwork

i am trying to use neuralnet or mlp function on my data and then iuse to predict on my test data output [B], at the beginning i am using this code to rescale my data : maxs <- apply(data, 2, max) ...
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### A feature of several items (likert scale) - one score is needed

Currently I am analysing the quantitative analysis data of my final Marketing project in SPSS and I have a doubt: I have conducted a survey with some questions grouped into 4 features (Trust; ...
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### Combining binary and ordinal variables in a single scale for use as dependent variable

My brain is failing to come up with the right search terms to remind myself how to do this... I have two variables, one indicating a yes/no decision and the second indicating the respondent's ...
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### How can I make a grading scale more objective?

I want to come up with an at least slightly more objective scale than the one found here: https://www.profootballfocus.com/about/how-we-grade/ In the link, each play for each football player is ...
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### Question about scales and z-scores

I have 1000+ evaluations of 65 students by faculty. Two different eval forms, each evaluating the student in 5 areas, but 2 different scales: 1 a 3-pt scale; the other a 4-point scale.I'm thinking ...
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### Can Best-worst (Max-diff) scaling experimental designs be blocked?

To enable a large number of items to be used (i.e. generally more than 15 or 20), can Best-worst (Max-diff) scaling experimental designs be blocked for respondents? Could anyone suggest any material ...
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### How to justify construct validity when items dropped from established instrument?

I conducted a survey in which I used the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). While analyzing this instrument (as my Depression construct) in SmartPLS, I iteratively dropped items that had non-...
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### Combining two scales

So, I have two scales, A and B, both ranging from 0 to 10. I would like to combine these into one as follows: At one endpoint, high values on A and high values on B At the other endpoint, high values ...
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### Metanalysis of normalized mean values - How to normalized the standard deviation

This is my first question here so I am not sure if will frame it correctly. I am trying to do a simple metanalysis of raw means comparing a psychological assessment (i.e. depression level) in two time ...
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### Non-Significant difference between individual items, but significant difference between overall scores

Say that we have a scale measuring Healthiness of Diet, and want to see if two populations have different levels of Healthiness of Diet. If we find that the difference between the two samples at the ...
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### Which classifiers need feature scaling? [duplicate]

Is feature scaling (for example mean normalization) always preferred or can it sometimes lead to poor accuracy? How do I know whether I should perform feature scaling or not? Which tasks/classifiers ...