Scales used to express measurements, usually ratio, interval, ordinal or nominal scales.

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Creating a disease severity score/index

I am trying to design a numerical scale which would describe the severity of a certain disease (in this particular case anaphylaxis). I have a set of clinical symptoms and a database of patients who ...
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2answers
109 views

Which measurement level would this be?

I have a variable times of collaboration: the possible answers are 0 (meaning no collaboration), 1, 2, or 3. Would this mean I am dealing with an interval measurement level?
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29 views

Recode ordinary scaled variables

Iam trying to make a linear regression in STATA with ordinary scaled(in dataset): dependant variable(0;10) independant variable(0;10) Does anyone know how can recode the variables into metric scaled ...
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15 views

Calculating summated scales (factor analysis)

I have read that, when calculating summated scales for each scale in the solution of a factor analysis, as an average of sum of the items comprising each scale, the items with high loadings should be ...
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13 views

How to Deal with Peaks and Valleys on Scale Data

I've got a questionnaire/scale from 0-8, let's say it's a mood scale (0 = no depression, 8 = most depressed ever felt), subjects fill in a bubble along the scale, but the numbers aren't there, only ...
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8 views

Create scales from binary data

I am currently struggling with a statistics problem, I am in over my head, off the bus as one can say. As part of a research I am measuring incumbent response strategies to the perceived threat of ...
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57 views

Calculating Cronbach's alpha: Same scale, multiple instances

I'm working on data analysis for my dissertation, and I'm banging my head against the wall when it comes to Cronbach's alpha. I just completed a pretest; after data cleaning, I have 119 valid and ...
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9 views

how to identify items in scale that can be removed (as are measuring the same thing)

I am testing a scale with 17 items. I believe that some items are measuring exactly the same, so I thinkg those can be eliminated from the measurement scale. However, I do not know which test can ...
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20 views

tests one multi-question item effect on another multi-question item

I have two Constructs (composite variables), each Construct has its own measurement scale (questions). First Construct is named CETSCALE and it consists of 17 questions, second Construct consists of ...
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58 views

Factor analysis with varimax rotation gives very different answer from PCA?

I asked expert raters to evaluate several subject on six dimensions of creativity. Now, I am using factor analysis (factanal()) and PCA(princomp()) to see of these dimensions are measuring distinct ...
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20 views

Exploratory Factor Analysis and survey scales

Are there limitations to using EFA on survey data, where some questions have different scales? (ex. some questions are four-point and some are five-point Likert scales; one is on a 10-point scale) ...
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13 views

How do you correctly scale a formative latent variables in a structural equation model?

How does one scale a formative latent variable? I know that one option is to multiply one indicator by 1. What I do not understand is that if depending on which indicator is multiplied the direction ...
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55 views

Likert scale based composite variables

I am conducting a small research into the adoption of smart home technologies for elderly people. In this research I have conducted both questionnaires and interviews, with the questionnaire being ...
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52 views

Likert Scale 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 possible?

In my questionnaire I want to ask people to score on a dimensional Likert-type scale their attitude toward a specific target group. E.g. People with .... are stupid.... intelligent. I want to use ...
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29 views

Should I standardize or rescale with polynomial regression as alternative to difference scores?

I am working with a model that uses polynomial regression combined with response surface modelling as an alternative to difference scores in regression: ...
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83 views

How to normalize the data to [0, 1] in R with data similar to χ²-distribution without shrinking lower values too much?

I want to normalize the data to [0,1], but the distribution of this array is quite not regular, having large quantity of low values and small quantity of large values, almost 80% values of data are in ...
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2answers
46 views

Scales of Measurement

when we use the term " scales of measurement", what do we mean by scale by Measurement ? As far i know, measurement denotes "a value" and scale denotes "the unit" of the value. So if i say, ...
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311 views

When should I apply feature scaling for my data

I started a discussion with a collague of mine and we started to wonder, when should one apply feature normalization / scaling to the data? Lets say that we have a set of features with some of the ...
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36 views

Partial least squares regression on survey data with multiple scales

I have a survey data set composed of 7 scales, each scale with 7 to 10 items. The theoretical framework I've devised uses 5 of the scales as independent variables and 2 of the scales as dependent ...
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2answers
42 views

revert minmax normalization back to original value

i'm training a neural network. Normalization of inputs and outputs (training data) are carried out using min Max to a scale of [0-1]. I'm applying backpropagation learning algorithm. Firstly, i need ...
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59 views

libsvm: scaling data results in less features?

I've scaled my training and testing data in BASH like so: ...
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1answer
34 views

Latent Class Analysis vs Rasch Analysis

I hope everybody is well :) I was wondering if anybody could explain the core, philosophical/conceptual differences between Latent Class Analysis and Rasch Analysis. I'm not necessarily referring to ...
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1answer
26 views

Need help with deciding on statistical test for three separate instruments

So I am trying to analyze my data. I used the following scales: Brief RCOPE, the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS), and the Satisfaction with Life scale (SWLS). They ...
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2answers
105 views

Why does the scaling of feature vectors improve performance of SVM classifier?

I've found that performing scaling in SVM problems really improves the performance of SVM ... But I don't understand why! I have read this explanation: "The main advantage of scaling is to avoid ...
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1answer
15 views

what “non-continuous nature of scores” means

1) Can someone explain me the idea of this sentence: "It is noted that nonparametric tests were employed because of the non-continuous nature of the scale scores" (this is related to scale validity ...
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12 views

first and second order factors

I am not deep into statistics yet, however ,I am reading an article that speaks about measurement scale. It says that some items (A,B,C) are first-order factor, but another item (D) is second-order ...
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23 views

scale creation - how to know if concept B is part of concept A or seperate concept

I have to create a survey that will measure customer attitude to home products. Imagine: - I have concept A (it couuld be consumer ethnocentrism, for example). I am going to measure it using 10 items ...
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Choosing between two scales

I am investigating a scale of consumer ethnocentrism - CETSCALE. I do not have much knowledge in econometrics, scales, etc., however: a) research papers report that the standard 17-item scale is ...
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33 views

What is the “scale” parameter in “continuous autoregressive model” in cts package?

I am trying to use the "car" command in "cts package" in R program and I see the "scale" parameter there. I wonder whether this can be assumed to be equivalent to time intervals for time series ...
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17 views

scale of measurements in sign test and signed rank test

Can some one help me to understand the right scale of measurement to use in sign test as well as in signed rank test? I read a certain book it says nominal scale is used in sign test while ordinal ...
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36 views

Summated scales for factors (latent variables)

For summated scales: can I use all the variables that load on a factor or is it necessary to use only the variables with high loading (over 0.70, for example)?
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76 views

Eliminated items in Factor Analysis

I'd like to get your opinions on how to interpret items that had to be eliminated in factor analysis (FA). I've been researching consumer shopping motivations and ran a survey with 40 items, which ...
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36 views

Can one variable explain if another variable is preferred more than others?

I have a questionnaire consisting of 7 multi item scales. The first four multi item scale each represents if a respondent performs a giving role and the remaining 3 multi item scales each represent a ...
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1answer
15 views

Scale of variables and the consequences on the solution

Let us say I have data set of distinct $x_i$. A Gaussian is fitted to it with maximum likelihood, obtaining some $\mu$ and some $\sigma^2$. I will also obtain a likelihood $\mathcal{L}$. Now, I copy ...
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46 views

How to scale data in a log-lin regression

I am currently doing exam revision, and I am stuck on a question in one of the past exams. It asks us to data scale the following equation: $\ln W$ = 2.54 + 0.4...
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185 views

Questionnaire design - Agree/Disagree scale

I recently constructed a questionnaire to carry out a market survey on soap brands used. One of the questions which was asked was to rate few statements which influence the respondent to buy a certain ...
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14 views

How to analyze a variable measured on a Likert scale and its interaction with another variable? [duplicate]

I have to analyze this variable which consists of scores given to 3 items (1-9 scale). This "Likert scale" measures "brand commitment" if thats important. 1) Firstly, should I compute 1 new variable ...
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35 views

Transforming Rank-Ordered Variable

I am currently working on an archival dataset (General Social Survey 1985). In a measure, participants are asked to rank 5 job characteristics by degree of preference. In other words, participants ...
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595 views

Transforming scores between different rating scales – Importance of response options

I'm working on a meta analysis of the mean of a single variable (using arithmetic mean as the effect size, rather than the relationship between two variables). The attitude I'm assessing has been ...
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16 views

Scale of control variable in ANCOVA

I am new to the field of ANCOVAs. I want to check if two groups differ in three quantitative variables. At the same time I would like to control for gender and diagnose (6 categories). Is it ...
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41 views

Regression analysis of different ranges in percent?

I have two variables, both percentages but have been converted to decimal numbers, and one variable ranges from roughly 15-30 percent and the other ranges from 55-70 percent. The lower range is my ...
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2answers
591 views

What criteria must be met in order to conclude a 'ceiling effect' is occurring?

According to The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods… [a] ceiling effect occurs when a measure possesses a distinct upper limit for potential responses and a large concentration ...
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1answer
71 views

Log-scaled chart for visualizing extreme range

I need a simple bar chart or the like. I am not a statistician by any means, but this chart is supposed to accurately represent FileIO in MB/s compared to the theoretical peak of a specific drive. ...
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46 views

composite scale to measure child-parent relationship

For my research on Mental health problems and correlates, child-parent relationship have identified as a correlate. Child-parent relationship is planned to measure with 6 questions and each question ...
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1answer
548 views

Calculating scale mean from item means

I'm working on a review paper and need to collect the means and standard deviations of a given measure (such as a measure of depression) from papers of interest. However, some authors report means and ...
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1answer
199 views

How to calculate max/min scales on a scatter plot

I have 3 log scatter plots that I want to establish smooth maximum and minimum lines. What is the usual mathematical method to do that? (Image and Excel file links below.) The black lines on the ...
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193 views

How to solve the problem, that the scale of variables influence the gradient/optimization

I've the problem that, using something related to Fisher-scoring, the gradient, which is usually the sum over a variable times a value which depends upon the parameter we are looking for, the updates ...
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1answer
107 views

How to scale new observations for making predictions when the model was fitted with scaled data?

I understand the concept of scaling the data matrix to use in a linear regression model. For example, in R you could use: ...
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44 views

Question on scaling data

I have been reading Elements of Statistical Learning. And I saw some example R codes written online. I realise that very often the explanatory variables $X$ (the data of the predictors) are ...
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37 views

What is the level of measurement for years?

The years I won the gold medal in Olympics 1990/1991 1995/1996 1998/1999 I understand that quantitative data can be used on numeric scale. Perhaps, this can. Also I believe this is a ratio data ...