# Tagged Questions

structural equation modeling, a multivariate technique popular in social sciences. It is based on formulating a set of linear relations between variables, some of which may be latent, and estimating the whole system, typically by analyzing the covariance matrix of the observed variables.

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### How to specify a path model with exogenous variables jointly affected by an unmeasured variable

I’ve simulated some data consisting of one response variable (‘y’) and two collinear predictor variables (‘Amount’ and ‘MPS’), where collinearity arises from one of two causes: (1) Amount causes MPS, ...
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### How to interpret negative factor loadings and residual variances in SEM?

I've been trying to fit a SEM model, using misconceptions and the correct conception as latent variables. My instrument is a set of items that ask a binary yes or no question. (Is something in a ...
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### Structural equation model with very small samples

I have two sets of a longitudinal data that I hypothesize to measure same latent construct.I am trying to test this hypothesis using Structural equation modelling technique. Basically, I am trying to ...
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### Model fit in AMOS - ADF vs ML

I am performing a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in AMOS using asymptotically distribution free estimation (ADF) because my data are non-normal and I have a big sample (N = 1600). The root mean ...
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### Suppression or incidental/accidental cancelation?

I am analyzing data using path analysis and I am hoping someone here can help. In my model, I am looking at predictors of a variable, Y. In the path model, Y has 4 significant predictors lets call ...
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### Chi-square difference test for assessing discriminant validity

I would like to understand about the concepts and methods of chi-square difference test to test discriminant validity for measurement model in SEM. Pleas tell me and you can raise the examples that ...
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### Regressing latent variables on observed variable using sem package in R

I'm having difficulty with some syntax in R using the sem package. I'm trying to do the following: Create four latent variables with three (attitudinal) ...
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### Path sampling in AMOS 21

I use AMOS 21 to estimate BSEM. Is it possible to perform path sampling (Song & Lee, 2012) using AMOS 21?
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### Bayes Factor calculation in AMOS

The fit statistics for a Bayesian SEM in AMOS does not provide a Bayes factor. How do I calculate a Bayes Factor in AMOS 21?
279 views

### Regression and simple SEM: identification and model comparison

I have two problems I am trying to solve. I am using MPLUS, but I have very general questions for which MPLUS knowledge will not be necessary. Terminology: y = DV, x = IV (1) Simple regression ...
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### Path analysis or a full SEM?

I have been researching this topic for some time now and was after some opinions or comments. Are there any situations where a path analysis (a form of SEM) might be more appropriate than a full SEM? ...
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### Interpretation of Residual Covariance

I have recently begun using the Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) Method of confirmatory factor analysis for a research endeavor in educational science. My question is, suppose I have two latent ...
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### When two variables are correlated, how can I draw two variables for SEM using AMOS?

I would like to use AMOS for SEM. According to the literature, either (1) worry is correlated with anxiety, or (2) worry is characterized by anxiety. Would you help me as to how I can draw one ...
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### What is the difference between standardized and unstandardized estimates in SEM (thinking of AMOS in particular)?

AMOS, like other SEM packages offers standardized and unstandardized estimates of the parameters. What is the difference? Are unstandardized estimates based on the covariance matrix and standarized on ...
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### Regression in SEM programs vs regression in statistical packages such as SPSS

Contex Multiple regression with continuous variables. Conventional statistical packages, e.g. SPSS, lm() in R, typically give me an F value, dfs, and a significance test on whether the model is ...
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### Model Identification

Could somebody please explain why this model is "just identified" As I see it, there are 5 * 4 / 2 = 10 variances/covariances, 4 observed means, giving 14 available degrees of freedom 5 DF are ...
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### Non normal data

My model has seven independent variables and one dependent variable. Each are subscales for a 5 point likert scale questionairre. I tested each variable data and they are all non normal. I did ...
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### Troubleshooting underidentification issues in structural equation modelling (SEM)

Background Introduction I have a data set consisting of data collected from a questionnaire that I wish to validate. I have chosen to use confirmatory factor analysis to analyse this data set. ...
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### Measuring Skewness and Kurtosis in MPlus

I am trying to measure the skewness and kurtosis in MPlus using the below syntax. Variable: Names are SX1-SX3 OX1-OX4 UX1-UX4 RX1-RX4; Classes = C(1); ...
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### Confirmatory factor analysis using SEM: What do we do with items with zero variance?

When I run my analysis with items with zero variance, sem in R would throw up a warning saying that items with zero variance ...
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### Path analysis of empirically evauluated model and sample size

I am new to the Path Analysis and ESM. I have been doing reading on this method, but still feel very much confused. I have a empirically evaluated failure model having 45 variables connected with ...
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### High SRMR despite good fit based on other indices in SEM (latent growth curve)

Context: Latent Growth Curve Modeling for continuous variable with 15 time points. One intercept, two slopes (for first and ...
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### Definition of simultaneous equation modelling

I have been asked to comment on a statistical analysis proposal that suggests using simultaneous equation modelling as a method. I have a basic general knowledge of statistics (Masters level) but ...
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### SEM or path analysis using AMOS, issues with sample size and model complexity

I am new to SEM / AMOS and as such I have done a lot of reading around my problem but find I am getting lost, any help would be appreciated and I am sorry if this sounds rather basic; I have a model ...
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### Minimum sample size for PLS SEM

I have a structural model with 6 latent variables and 26 related items (indicators). The maximum number of indicators for a latent variable is 5. How should I calculate the minimum required sample ...
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### Matrix of correlations between the residuals in a SEM fitted by R systemfit function

Assume we would fit this model with systemfit() from the systemfit R package. $y = \beta_1 x + \gamma_1 z + u$ $z = \beta_2 w + \gamma_2 y + v$ Now I can get an ...
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### What does “static” in the context of a SEM mean?

I just stumbled upon a wiki article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endogeneity_(economics)#Omitted_Variable In the section "simultaneity" theres a description of a model which says that both ...
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### Which model to use with repeated measures data that contains multiple binary dependent variables

What model should I use??? I have daily repeated measures data. It has multiple dependent presence absence variables, (of which, I have collapsed into a CA with continuous variables of CA1 & ...
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### How to control for common method bias?

I am doing CFA to test for common method bias using an unmeasured latent construct method. The average common variance I am getting from the common factor is about 31% which is high (as should be less ...
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### Formative model identification problem using SEM

I have problem in identifying a formative structural equation model using AMOS.Does anyone have any suggestion for dealing with the identification problem in formative measurement models?
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### What does a chi-square value of zero means in CFA?

I am new to SEM and I am trying to run CFA for a 3-item Job satisfaction scale in Amos. I am getting the following as results. ...
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### Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) before complete SEM model: one CFA for each scale or one CFA for all of the scales together?

I have a doubt regarding confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). I have three different constructs, each one with its corresponding scale: 1) resilience (3 dimensions, 4 items each) 2) humour (3 ...
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### Whether to use correlation matrix between latent variables or raw data as input to SEM?

I have a fairly large model - a total of 8 latent variables and each one has 10 items (observed variables). Drawing this model is a mess (there is a mediation effect as well). Is it better to just ...
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### Comparing structural equation models with multivariate non-normality

I am aware that multivariate non-normality in SEM can inflate the chi-square statistic and deflate standard errors of parameter estimates. I can deal with the latter (in AMOS) using bootstrapping ...
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### About Identification in a 3 equation SEM

I got this example and I was wondering about a certain statement:  \begin{aligned} y_1 &= \alpha_{12}y_2 + \alpha_{13}y_3 + \beta_{11}z_1 + u_1 \\ y_2 &= \alpha_{21}y_1 + \beta_{21}z_1 + ...
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### Are composite variables (eg. a score) valid to perfom a SEM in AMOS?

I have a resilience scale with 11 items (observed variables), from which I calculated the mean to get a "resilience score" (what would usually be an unobserved variable or latent construct in SEM ...
255 views

### Regression analysis with factor scores as explanatory variable

I intend to use factor scores as derived from exploratory factor analysis in subsequent multivariate regression analysis, as an explanatory variable. I've read in multiple books/papers that ...
210 views

### Ridging a singular covariance matrix (SEM)

Structural equation models sometimes cannot be fit due to a singular sample covariance matrix. Now some authors suggest to apply a "gentle ridging" to the diagonal which helps (this is for example ...
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### Simulate data for path model

How does one simulate data for a path model? Below is an example path model with parameters b1, b2, b3, b4, b5, e1, e2 and e3. I would like to investigate how sample size affects my estimates and ...
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### The organization as a unit of analysis and sampling issue

I'm doing a quantitative study entitled "Technology Transfer and Competitive Advantages in Oil and Gas Companies". In my study, the unit of analysis is the organization and there are only 9 oil and ...
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### Problem with multiple group CFA with censored variables using Mplus

I'm having problems running a multigroup CFA in Mplus for my dissertation, based on the established 4-factor model of the Hamilton Depression Scale (21 items). My dataset includes 4 left censored ...