# Tagged Questions

structural equation modeling, a multivariate technique popular in social sciences. It is based on formulating a set of linear relations between variables, some of which may be latent, and estimating the whole system, typically by analyzing the covariance matrix of the observed variables.

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### Using SEM or multiple regression for analyzing questionnaire data with multiple 'sub-items'

I am currently doing my MBA and I am attempting to find out what variables affect new student intake at the university which I am working at. My model is based on the 7Ps of the marketing mix ...
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### Using total score from multi-scale instrument in structural equation modeling

I wonder if you can help me to get the right answer to a question about structural equation modeling. Imagine someone trying to validate a questionnaire using component factor analysis that ...
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### Subscales (not items) as indicators of latent variables in SEM

I have a sample (n=200) that I have collected questionnaire data from. Each participant will complete 5 questionnaires that capture different behaviours and all of my 5 questionnaires include between ...
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### What is the difference between a nested and non-nested model in CFA?

I thought it had to do with varying numbers of factors but based on the literature I have read it seems to do more with fixing/freeing of parameters. Any info would be greatly appreciated!
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### Interpreting AIC and BIC fit

I'm writing a CFA paper, and I have run into some trouble interpreting the AIC and BIC. This is my first paper using continuous variables, thus the first time I will be reporting these fit statistics ...
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### Fixing error variance in a path analysis to model measurement error in scales using sem package

I want to construct a path analysis model that can account for measurement error in totally aggregated parcels, which refer to parcels where all of the items in a scale are summed or averaged. If I am ...
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### SEM with binary dependent variable

Much like with regression, handling binary dependent variables in SEM requires special considerations. In particular, some of these are noted on Dave Garson's Structural Equation Modeling and include: ...
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### A multitrait-multimethod matrix and data set

I am working my way through Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix in a psychometrics class. We're only required to be able to analyze them but I'd really like to be able to construct them. I think I am able ...
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### Help with SEM modeling (OpenMx, polycor)

I have lots of problem with one data set to which I am trying to apply SEM. We suppose the existence of 5 latent factors A, B, C, D, E, with indicators resp. A1 to A5 (ordered factors), B1 to B3 ...
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### Repeated measures structural equation modeling

I need to analyse a dataset of clinical rehabilitation data. I am interested in hypothesis-driven relationships between quantified "input" (amount of therapy) and changes in health status. Although ...
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### When can RMSEA be zero?

If $\text{RMSEA} = 0$, it means $\chi^2 < df$. Does it disqualify RMSEA as a criterion to evaluate the model fit, or is it just the explanation why it is zero?
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### Can structural equation models be used to derive clinical formulae?

Structural equation models (sem) are used to model latent variables. Renal function is a latent variable measured by serum creatinine levels (with measurement errors) expressed by many different ...
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### Introduction to structural equation modeling

I am asked by colleagues some help in this subject, that I don’t really know. They made hypotheses on the role of some latent variables in one study, and a referee asked them to formalize this in SEM. ...
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### Whether to leave the data unaltered in the face of outliers and non-normality when performing structural equation modelling?

I recently received this email from a graduate student, and I get similar questions often enough, that I thought I'd post it here: I'm using factor analysis, multiple regression, and SEM and ...
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### Factoring two matrices into shared and unique variance

I have two square symmetric matrices, A and B, each of which contains the pairwise cosine distances between two different sets of vectors. The sets of vectors are different for A and B, but they are ...
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### Do path coefficients (beta) for the same condition across model comparisons have to be equal in structural equation modeling?

This is a long-winded question but I'll try to paint the picture. I'm using structural equation modeling using Amos software to study relationships between brain and behaviour. I have three condition ...
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### Where can I find information about using SPSS for EFA and CFA? Is PCA (two samples) and reliability sufficient for scale development?

Context: I am in the process of developing a scale for my thesis. My advisor has guided me to using SPSS PCA to complete my analyses. Initially we reduced my scale to 3 factors (her insistence), ...
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### What does it mean when you get strange model fit statistics in AMOS?

I am testing the fit of my mediation model in AMOS, and the model fit statistics are very strange. For example, the CFI is .000 and the RMSEA is way too big (14.774). It seems as though there has been ...
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### How to save individual residuals from an observed endogenous variable in a structural equation model?

I am estimating a structural equation model in which two latent variables (with 4 indicators each) and the interaction between the two latent variables predict a single observed variable. I would like ...
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### -1 df for a saturated model with ML estimator?

I estimate a saturated / just-identified model (specifically: an APIM model, actor-partner-interdepence model) with the R package lavaan. This model is saturated ...
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### How to interpret coefficients produced by the sem function in R?

I have performed the path analysis using the sem function in R. The model which I fitted consists of both direct and indirect paths. I have some trouble in ...
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### When analyzing dyadic data, can unpaired cases be used in any part of the analysis?

I am currently in the process of analyzing a data set comprised of manager-subordinate dyads. Data were collected cross-sectionally and the data set contains some of the same variables collected from ...
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### WLS estimator and bootstrapping in sem package

Is there a way to run the sem function (R sem package) by using WLS method? Furthermore I have a very small data set (20 observations), can I overcome this problem ...
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### Multiple imputation on single subscale item or subscale scores?

Recently I am conducting a research on the relationship between motivation/attitude variables (Gardner's model) and English language proficiency in the Philippines. I encountered a problem: missing ...
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### Whether to use structural equation modelling to analyse observational studies in psychology

I've noticed this issue coming up a lot in statistical consulting settings and i was keen to get your thoughts. Context I often speak to research students that have conducted a study approximately ...
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### R package for multilevel structural equation modeling?

I want to test a multi-stage path model (e.g., A predicts B, B predicts C, C predicts D) where all of my variables are individual observations nested within groups. So far I've been doing this through ...
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### Structural equation modeling for experimental design data

I'm wondering if this is possible to fit structural equation model for experimental design data. Problem Suppose a researcher observed four responses $Y_1$, $Y_2$, $Y_3$, and $Y_4$ along with three ...
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### Complications of having a very small sample in a structural equation model

I am running a structural equation model (SEM) in Amos 18. I was looking for 100 participants for my experiment (used loosely), which was deemed to be probably not enough to conduct successful SEM. ...
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### Bootstrapped parameter and fit estimates with non-normality for structural equation models

Context: Within the context of structural equation modelling, I have non-normality according to the Mardia test but univariate indices of skewness and kurtosis are less than 2.0. Questions: Should ...
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### Testing significance of factors and covariates along with modeling causality among responses

I'm wondering how to test the significance of factor(s) and/or covariate(s) along with modeling the causal relationship among responses. Let me explain this with a concrete example. Example: Suppose ...
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### What to do following poor fit statistics for a confirmatory factor analysis?

Context I have got some problems with my doctoral dissertation. My thesis is Investigating Secondary Primary School Teachers' Organizational citizenship behaviours through their perceptions about ...