Indicates questions asking about the use and meaning of specific technical words/concepts in statistics.

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3
votes
1answer
24 views

Studying complex systems (complexity)

Complex socio-technical systems is one my research interests. Since I plan to further study such systems and related phenomena, I've done a bit of reading and ran across various books, such as Bar-Yam ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Using the terms significance, probability or likelihood, in connection with estimators

Imagine a number of variates $x_i$, and a number of processes $P_k$ which depend on these variables, in an unknown way (ie no clear cut formulas to work with). Now consider the scenario where you ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Is the bias of a coin a latent variable or a parameter?

Consider the standard Bayesian estimation problem in which the bias $p$ of a coin is picked uniformly at random from $[0, 1]$, the coin is tossed a few times, and $p$ is then estimated from the ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Is there any difference between Random and Probabilistic?

It seems i can't directly say probabilistic and random are identical . But this is telling : random experiment is a probabilistic experiment. Is there any difference between Random and ...
-1
votes
0answers
20 views

Is Experiment and Trial synonymous?

Here they define : When we repeat a random experiment several times, we call each one of them a trial. But here they give the subtitle Experiment or Trial. ...
0
votes
2answers
45 views

Are Event and Outcome synonymous?

Outcome : An outcome is a result of a random experiment. Event : A single result of an experiment. Are Event and Outcome synonymous ?
3
votes
1answer
77 views

Two broad categories of dimensionality reduction

As a starter in dimensionality reduction (DR), I recently acquired the following understanding. There are two very broad categories of DR techniques: We can compute an analytic form of mapping from ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Clarification in the terms of log-likelihood expression

I am trying to implement Eq(7) given below from Parameter estimation for Linear dynamical system where Q is a 2 by 2 covariance matrix of the process noise. The model is ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

What is the difference (if any) between 'harmonized' and 'standardized data?

I am trying to describe the process of combining multiple datasets into a common format - e.g. a single database that enforces a common vocabulary, scale, and structure. However, I am unclear if I ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Ratio “observed-to-expected” - how do you call it?

Is there a name for the ratio of the observed count in a cell (say, ij) to the expected count in it - $O_{ij}/E_{ij}$? Likelihood ratio Chi-square (= G-square) statistic is based on these quantities. ...
4
votes
0answers
51 views

What's the distinction between a “Null hypothesis statistical test” and any other test?

A recent hot topic of discussion concerns a journal banning the use of "null hypothesis statistical testing procedures (NHSTPs)" from articles submitted to the journal. I see this term used by some ...
2
votes
1answer
17 views

Terminology: output of a regression model as input to another regression model

I have a question about terminology. I've constructed a multiple linear regression model for a variable X. This model is in turn used to estimate values of X that are used as input when constructing ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

What is the difference between independent variable and a feature?

I ran into this question which asks the identification of various terms for a linear regression function (f). I am confused about the "independent variable" definition. What is the difference ...
0
votes
1answer
79 views

Mathematical Modeling and Statistical Modeling

What is the difference between mathematical modeling and statistical modeling? I only know that a mathematical model is deterministic while a statistical model is stochastic. Is that all to answer ...
0
votes
2answers
25 views

Observed and Observable

What is observed and what is observable? I found this two word frequently in the context of random variable and realization of ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

What is industrial statistics?

We have a course titled "Industrial Statistics". But I don't understand what is industrial statistics? What I have understood after searching some sites is only that Industrial statistics ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

What is intervention?

An intervention is strategy to produce change among individuals or entire population. Is the definition of intervention correct ?
3
votes
2answers
89 views

How to properly state the average of a discrete number in a report?

I'm wording a report on the averages of a discrete variable, and am trying to get the most appropriate sounding wording. Consider the able below: ...
-1
votes
2answers
40 views

What is meant by the term “convergence” in Restricted Boltzmann Machine?

I have come across the term "convergence" in training RBM. Can someone give a brief definition / explanation of it?
10
votes
2answers
284 views

What is the “partial” in partial least squares methods?

In partial least squares regression (PLSR) or partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM), what does the term "partial" refer to?
15
votes
2answers
1k views

Why are “time series” called such?

Why are “time series” called such? Series means sum of a sequence. Why is it time Series, not time sequence? Is time the independent variable?
3
votes
2answers
43 views

What is the proper name of a model that takes as input the output of another model?

Thanks in advance for the help. I am writing a paper and for the life of me can't remember the proper term for a model that works as follows. ...
6
votes
2answers
48 views

Can 'selection bias' refer to bias in the intervention as well as in the sampling?

I have been using the term selection bias to refer to a situation where (e.g.) schools with certain pre-existing characteristics are more likely to be included in (e.g.) a teacher training programme ...
5
votes
3answers
392 views

Returning unlikely results from a probability distribution

The Law of large numbers addresses the issue of the average result of a large number of random trials. Is there a similar law which addresses the probability of obtaining an unusual result for a large ...
-1
votes
2answers
40 views

What is the difference between a neural network and a perceptron?

Is there any difference between the terms "neural network" and "perceptron"?
4
votes
1answer
98 views

Is there any difference between $r^2$ and $R^2$?

The correlation coefficient is usually written with a capital $R$ but sometimes not. I wonder if there really is a difference between $r^2$ and $R^2$? Can $r$ mean something other than a correlation ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Does $R^2$ interpretable as the proportion of *variation* explained, or the proportion of *variance* explained?

What is the correct term to be used in the title phrase? Wikipedia says: $\dots$ The coefficient of determination $R^2$ is a measure of the global fit of the model. Specifically, $R^2$ is an ...
9
votes
1answer
503 views

How fair is it to use the word “predict” for (logistic) regression?

My understanding is that even regression does not give causality. It can only give association between y variable and x variables and possibly a direction. Am I correct? I've often found phrases ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Training a function that maps n-dim to n-dim

As an example, say the input is an array of numbers representing an audio snippet and the output is a transformed/filtered version of it. What would be the proper term for that? Which are examples of ...
3
votes
1answer
22 views

Is accuracy = 1- test error rate

Apologies if this is a very obvious question, but I have been reading various posts and can't seem to find a good confirmation. In the case of classification, is a classifier's accuracy = 1- test ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

What is the difference between errors and residuals?

While these two ubiquitous terms are often used synonymously, there sometimes seems to be a distinction. Is there indeed a difference, or are they exactly synonymous?
0
votes
1answer
23 views

What exactly is a hyperparameter?

Title says it all. I have seen both "the hyperparameter of the Dirichlet distribution" and "the parameter of the Dirichlet distribution" What are the differences?
-1
votes
1answer
36 views

What does posterior “over” parameters $\alpha$ exactly mean? [closed]

From my understanding the posterior "over" parameters $\alpha$ is $$p(D|\alpha)$$ and not $$p(\alpha|D),$$ is it correct?
-1
votes
1answer
23 views

Exploring multiple semantic clusters of a given set of terms

I have a list of N object categories(e.g. apple, cell-phone, horse, chair, watch). Are there any methods of obtaining various clusters based on attributes of these categories ? For example, one ...
7
votes
1answer
420 views

Is the machine learning community abusing “conditioned on” and “parametrized by”?

Say, $X$ is dependent on $\alpha$. Rigorously speaking, if $X$ and $\alpha$ are both random variables, we could write $p(X\mid\alpha)$; however, if $X$ is a random variable and $\alpha$ is a ...
10
votes
5answers
402 views

Inference vs. estimation?

What are the differences between "inference" and "estimation" under the context of machine learning? As a newbie, I feel that we infer random variables and estimate the model parameters. Is my this ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Terminology Numerator Baye's Rule?

I am considering this formulation of Baye's Rule $\mathrm{Pr}(\theta | D) = \frac {\mathrm{Pr}(\theta)\mathrm{Pr}(D|\theta)}{\int \mathrm{Pr}(D|\theta)\mathrm{Pr}(\theta)\mathrm{d}\theta}$ Is there ...
4
votes
1answer
164 views

Applied statistics vs Mathematical statistics

The Help Center for this site says we can ask question about, among other things, mathematical statistics. I am curious to find out what mathematical statistics is. And I thought it might be easier ...
6
votes
2answers
117 views

Is 'indirect effect' the same as 'mediation'?

Is it correct to use 'indirect effect' and 'mediation' interchangeably in all situations? I mean if we know that A influences B and B influences C. Can we conclude that the effect is mediated by B ...
5
votes
1answer
93 views

Why do we use the term multicollinearity, when the vectors representing two variables are never truly collinear?

When two vectors $a$ and $b$ are collinear, then $a = xb$, (where $x$ is a scalar) so in linear algebra, collinearity is a narrowly and clearly defined (and binary) concept. Two vectors -- in my ...
6
votes
1answer
381 views

What is cross-validation?

I'm having trouble understanding what cross-validation is. Also, what is the connection between cross-validation and the issue of model overfitting?
3
votes
1answer
68 views

Bayesian linear regression with continuous and binary covariates

I am interested in learning more about applying Bayesian linear models for covariates some of which are continuous and some are binary. What is the appropriate terminology for such models so that I ...
7
votes
2answers
119 views

How to describe a bin in a histogram?

What is common in the literature to refer to a certain bin in a histogram? For example, say I have a histogram with 4 bins. The first bin has all values between 1 to 2, second bin 2 to 3, and so on. ...
4
votes
1answer
33 views

What does the SEE measure?

Depending on context, I've seen the term "Standard Error of Estimate" used for both the standard deviation and for the variance of both the standard error and of the residuals. Is SEE a well-defined ...
8
votes
1answer
415 views

How does “Fundamental Theorem of Factor Analysis” apply to PCA, or how are PCA loadings defined?

I'm currently going through a slide set I have for "factor analysis" (PCA as far as I can tell). In it, the "fundamental theorem of factor analysis" is derived which claims that the correlation ...
8
votes
2answers
223 views

“Dummy variable” versus “indicator variable” for nominal/categorical data

"Dummy variable" and "indicator variable" are labels frequently used terms to describe membership in a category with 0/1 coding; usually 0: Not a member of category, 1: Member of category. On ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

What is the difference between a distribution and a semi-distribution?

I hope the question to be clear. The name "semi-distribution" certainly implies some meaning, yet, I'm unable to conclude what really means. I found the term on this paper: ...
10
votes
2answers
602 views

How to understand “nonlinear” as in “nonlinear dimensionality reduction”?

I am trying to understand the differences between the linear dimensionality reduction methods (e.g., PCA) and the nonlinear ones (e.g., Isomap). I cannot quite understand what the (non)linearity ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

impose an intercept on lm in r [duplicate]

I am converting a high-dimensional model to a lower dimensional model by fitting a sliding window of it to a linear (parametric) model and looking at the evolution of parameter values over time. I'm ...