Indicates questions asking about the use and meaning of specific technical words/concepts in statistics.

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1
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0answers
23 views

Meaning of “reconstruction error” in PCA and LDA

I am implementing PCA, LDA, and Naive Bayes, for compression and classification respectively (implementing both an LDA for compression and classification). I have the code written and everything ...
6
votes
1answer
80 views

Is there a word for believing events are independent when they are not?

This is sort of like the opposite of the gamblers fallacy, although it's not the "inverse gamblers fallacy". For instance, if I observe that in some condition, the expression of Gene A is elevated ...
0
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0answers
9 views

Should the arithmetic mean of a subset of population data be annotated as sample mean?

If I have population data, and I want to calculate the arithmetic mean of a subset of the population data (e.g. for a certain category of values within a certain range of $n$ observations), is the ...
14
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2answers
834 views

Why is the logistic distribution called “logistic”?

What is "logistic" about the logistic distribution, in a common sense way? What is the etymology of and the lexical rationale for the name, not just pure math definition?
1
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0answers
39 views

Is learning in statistics = hyper-parameter/model-learning in ML and inference in statistics = learning in ML? [closed]

It seems that when statisticians refer to learning, ML researchers refer to hyper-parameters and model-learning, and when statisticians refer to inference, an ML researcher refers to learning the ...
3
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1answer
77 views

Data space, variable space, observation space, model space (e.g. in linear regression)

Suppose we have the data matrix $\mathbf{X}$, which is $n$-by-$p$, and the label vector $Y$, which is $n$-by-one. Here, each row of the matrix is an observation, and each column corresponds to a ...
1
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0answers
19 views

What is the name of the assigned model?

When having some experimental data, one way to design a model presenting this data is as follows: Given $f(x,y)$ with the following values $$\begin{array}{|c|c|c|} \hline x & y & f \\ ...
1
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0answers
51 views

What is this time series model and how to produce it in R?

I know that $Y_{t} = a + bY_{t-1} + \epsilon$ is named as autoregression model. I am dealing with the model like: $Y_{t} = a + bY_{t-1} + cX_{t} + dX_{t-1} + \epsilon$. I could not find any useful ...
1
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1answer
37 views

What is the “systematic component of the model”, in bivariate linear regression?

I need to discuss the systematic component of the model in bivariate linear regression, but what is it in the first place? I have never come across this terminology in our class textbooks.
0
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0answers
24 views

Are moments related to moments in physics? [duplicate]

The terms are the same, but I cannot outwardly see, whether moments in statistics have something to do with moments in physics. So are they related? How?
2
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2answers
36 views

Sample distribution vs the distribution of the sample statistic

I recently came across a statement in classwork that confused me: the sample distribution is the distribution of the sample I wasn't sure about the validity of this statement. Specifically, ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Smooth Non Normally Distributed Data

I have ~16,000 probability sets of goals scored [maximum of 12] like below [some % are rounded hence do not add up to 100%]: ...
0
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0answers
14 views

Clustering + SVM -> transductive SVM?

Given a binarily labeled train set, and an unlabeled test set, consider the following two-step classification system: step 1: the train and test data is clustered. step 2: an SVM is fitted for each ...
3
votes
4answers
105 views

Difference between Anomaly and Outlier

Please let me know what is the difference between Outlier and Anomaly in the context of machine learning. My understanding is that both of them refer to the same thing.
0
votes
1answer
44 views

What is the difference between $t$-statistic and test-statistic?

I read several posts on Cross Validated about $t$-statistic and $p$-value and I believe I understand that. But I don't understand what is test-statistic and how is it different from $t$-statistic.
2
votes
1answer
44 views

What is the correct spelling and capitalization of “Naive Bayes”?

I wonder which form(s) are correct amongst the following: Naive Bayes (example: Tom Mitchell's chapter on Naive Bayes) naive Bayes (example: the Wikipedia page on naive Bayes) I have also read ...
1
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0answers
15 views

Tag vs class vs label vs category

What is the difference between a tag, a class, a label, and a category in the context of supervised classification? If these four terms are field-dependent, I am mostly interested in natural language ...
2
votes
2answers
66 views

How is the training set called when using a validation set?

The question might be not so clear. However, my confusion comes from the following approach: Suppose I use training, testing and validation sets. First, I split my data into training and testing. To ...
3
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0answers
23 views

Cumulant and moment names beyond variance, skewness and kurtosis

In physics, starting from position $x(t)$, one obtains rates of changes via derivatives with respect to time: velocity, acceleration, jerk, jounce (4th order). Some have proposed snap, crackle, pop ...
0
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1answer
39 views

What is $p_i(x_i - \sum_i p_ix_i)$ called?

I was reading a paper (dont have it with me!) on statistics and found a term that I have never encountered before: $p_{i}{(x_{i}-\mu )} = p_i(x_i - \sum_i p_ix_i)$ After some research it seems that ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

Bounding “an average”?

I'm doing a practice problem that is about processing orders. The assumptions are: "On average 40 orders are received" "50 orders per day can be processed" The task is to formulate notions about ...
7
votes
1answer
117 views

Factor rotation methods (varimax, oblimin, etc.) - what do the names mean and what do the methods do?

Factor analysis has several rotation methods, such as varimax, quartimax, equamax, promax, oblimin, etc. I am unable to find any information that relates their names to their actual mathematical or ...
1
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2answers
42 views

Iterative regression

What's the correct term for regression where you first regress on one input variable (feature), take the errors, regress on the next feature, etc.? In what specific cases is this useful? Are there any ...
1
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1answer
239 views

What does “linear-by-linear association” in SPSS mean?

Is "linear-by-linear association" in SPSS another name for the chi-squared test for trend? If not, what is it?
4
votes
3answers
155 views

Which parameter should be considered as “scale” parameter for Gamma distribution?

From Wikipedia and probably all statistics textbooks, we know that in the density of a Gamma random variable $$f(x; k, \theta) = \frac{1}{\Gamma(k)\theta^k}x^{k - 1}e^{-\frac{x}{\theta}}, \quad x > ...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

What is the correct terminology for one/two-tailed p-values and how do I apply the Holm-Bonferroni correction?

I have been struggling to reconcile my (very basic) understanding of P-values with the approach of one of my colleagues and it appears to come down to interpretation of p-value terminology. This is ...
1
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1answer
24 views

Is a comparison of patients between 2 clinics using propensity score matching a matched case control study?

I'm helping my boss design a study that will look at the effects of a clinic level intervention on a patient level outcome. I would like to look at the effect of our intervention on one clinic ...
1
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0answers
34 views

Covariate and DV - can they be the same?

I have two IVs (personality and teaching method) and a DV of self-esteem. I'm running a pretest/posttest ANCOVA (as I can't randomise) and am not sure if the DV and covariate can be the same. Can I ...
1
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0answers
20 views

Terminology question; Cross-sectional study and logistic regression - “predictors” or “correlates”?

Is the use of the term "Predictors" with regard to IVs in a logistic regression model appropriate or should an alternative term, such as correlates, be used instead? Specifically thinking of a ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

Probability in complex numbers?

I've seen, in the context of so called "probability amplitude", a reference on using complex numbers instead of real numbers for calculating probabilities. What's this "complex number" variation of ...
6
votes
2answers
627 views

meaning of 'Monte Carlo' in this sentence

This is from a paper 'Algorithms for Inverse Reinforcement Learning' by Ng, Russell (2001) We assume that we have the ability to simulate trajectories in the MDP (from the initial state $s_0$) ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

What exactly is a hypothesis space?

Whilst I understand the term conceptually, I'm struggling to understand it operationally. Could anyone help me out by offering an example? Thanks.
0
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0answers
20 views

Is there a name for this simple probability relation? [duplicate]

Namely: $\quad \frac{P(A \cap B)}{P(A) P(B)}$ Cleary this is 1 if A and B are independent, and I think it would be 1/2 if A = B. So it seems like this is some measurement of dependence. Is it ...
7
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2answers
252 views

Probability of failure

A structure will fail if subjected to a load greater then its own resistance: failure := load > resistance We can assume that the load and the resistance are ...
13
votes
1answer
809 views

Antonym of variance

Is there a word that means the 'inverse of variance'? That is, if $X$ has high variance, then $X$ has low $\dots$? Not interested in a near antonym (like 'agreement' or 'similarity') but specifically ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

In R regression tree summary, what is meant by 'residual mean deviance'?

I am building a regression tree in R, using the 'tree' package. Up until now, I only have worked with classification trees, so, I have relied on the misclassification error rate to judge how good my ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

How a line could separate samples into 3 classes

I have troubling the understand linear separability issue. As far as I search on the web, To be linearly separable, you have to able to separate data with a straight line for 2D, plane for 3D, ...
9
votes
2answers
94 views

What scientific field(s) studies how people interpret quantitative summaries and visualizations?

There's an abundance of well-known resources offering advice on data visualization. (E.g. Tufte, Stephen Few et al, Nathan Yau.) But to what field(s) might one turn to for answers to questions like ...
0
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0answers
15 views

Terminology for a 1-d summary of a high-dimensional space?

Overly pedantic question ahead. Suppose I have a huge matrix M that has a row for everyone who was at Disneyland on some particular date, a column for the person's ...
1
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0answers
10 views

How do you specify regression models

My question is about the nomenclature of specifying models. I have a specific example, taken from a paper: The outcome $Y$ is an independent Poisson variable, with means determined by the ...
1
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0answers
34 views

What is asymptotic error?

Ng, A.Y., and Jordan, M.I. (2001). On Discriminative vs. Generative classifiers: A comparison of logistic regression and naive Bayes. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 14, pp. 841-8, ...
1
vote
2answers
51 views

What does “PDF overlap” mean? “To see whether a probability density function overlaps”

I ran across the following sentence in a journal: "To see whether a probability density function overlaps" What does this word mean in the statistics literature, "overlaps"?
2
votes
0answers
41 views

The meaning of tensors in the neural network community

In the neural network community, is a tensor pretty much always just a multi-dimensional array?
0
votes
1answer
45 views

Is a word embedding a vector or a function?

Is a word embedding a vector or a function? I have read contradicting statements: Function: A word embedding $W: \text{words} \rightarrow R^n$ is is a paramaterized function mapping words in some ...
0
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0answers
31 views

Convex log likelihood function

What does "strictly convex log likelihood function" mean?
3
votes
0answers
49 views

Are interactions only useful in the context of regression?

I have always read the term interaction in the context of regression. Should we also consider interactions with different models e.g. knn or svm? If there are $50$, $100$ or even more features and ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Support Vector Machine Optimization Convexity

The SVM derivation is centered on convex optimization. By definition, convex optimization requires a convex objective function and convex or linear constraints. The task is to minimize this function. ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Creating heterogenous clusters

I am writing here to get to the proper statistical lingo/jargon to better communicate the procedures that I want to do in my project when I talk to potential statistician collaborators. From a large ...
1
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2answers
178 views

Regress IV on DV, or DV on IV?

This is a question about statistical language. Do you regress the IV on the DV, or do you regress the DV on the IV? Which is the correct way of saying this?
16
votes
2answers
369 views

Why is it called the “standard” deviation?

I have a simple - and possibly obviously trivial - question: why is the standard deviation called just that, "standard"? Is it because it standardizes the comparison of data sets and results with ...