Indicates questions asking about the use and meaning of specific technical words/concepts in statistics.

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8
votes
5answers
526 views

In layman's terms what is the difference between a model and a distribution?

The answers (definitions) defined on Wikipedia are arguably a bit cryptic to those unfamiliar with higher mathematics/statistics. I am a high school student very interested in this field as a hobby ...
0
votes
1answer
7 views

Nomenclature Question on T-values and Z-scores

Do the following triplets of terms refer to the same concepts (respectively)? z-value, z-score, and z-statistic t-value, t-score, and t-statistic For example, is it the case that there is no ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Difference between (quantitative,qualitative) vs (discrete,continuous)

Could someone please clarify the difference between these seemingly interchangeable groups? (quantitative,qualitative) vs (discrete,continuous). Obviously they are not, but I cannot seem to pinpoint ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Digits that are insignificant by virtue of representing extremely small quantities within a much larger quantity: what are they called?

In computer science, sometimes we can measure run-times with high accuracy. As a hypothetical scenario, suppose a computation takes a week to run and we can measure the run-time accurate to the ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

What is an “algebraic tail”?

The authors of this paper repeatedly use the term "algebraic tail" when describing some of the distributions they observed: ...the probability of remaining in a small, spatially confined region ...
13
votes
5answers
732 views

What's in a name: hyperparameters

So in a Normal distribution, we have two parameters: mean $\mu$ and variance $\sigma^2$. In the book Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning, there suddenly appears a hyperparameter $\lambda$ in the ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Mixture Distribution of Multiples

Is there a specific name for a mixture distribution composed of a random variable and its multiples? Suppose we start with a "atomic" random variable $A$. I want to know what one calls the ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

detecting the unknown canary [closed]

There is a metaphor "canary in a coal mine". The miners would keep the birds as an early warning system - if the bird suddenly died they would know something toxic was around and they could get out ...
1
vote
0answers
70 views

Testing difference between two portions of a time series with Chebyshev Theorem

I have a time series which presents two different patterns during time. These patterns are related to two different events that happen during the experiment. I can manually select the temporal ...
3
votes
4answers
130 views

Why do we say the outcome variable “is regressed on” the predictor(s)?

Is there some intuitive explanation for this terminology? Why is it this way, and not the predictor(s) being regressed on the outcome? Ideally I'm hoping that a proper explanation of why this ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

The name for data reported by an interested party like a manager, parent, or doctor?

Can anyone help me find the right name for something? I get that we have "self-reported data", where a member of your sample is reporting their own values of a variable, but is there a name for data ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

What is the meaning of the notation $P_\theta()$, where a probability has a subscript Greek letter?

What does theta subscript imply in e.g. this case: $$ P_\theta(T(x)=t) = 0 $$
10
votes
1answer
441 views

Why is left-skewed called negatively skewed and right-skewed called positively skewed?

I'm curious about the nomenclature: why is left-skewed called negatively skewed and right-skewed called positively skewed?
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Between high and low : name

I have a list : 1, 3, 5, 7,10. 1 is lowest and 10 is highest. Is there a term to define the numbers in between (3,5,7) All I can think about is inbetweeners
8
votes
2answers
141 views

Is bias a property of the estimator, or of particular estimates?

As an example, I often encounter students who know that Observed $R^2$ is a biased estimator of Population $R^2$. Then, when writing up their reports, they say things like: "I calculated Observed ...
0
votes
2answers
27 views

Terminology: Can “goodness-of-fit statistics” and “indicators” be used interchangeably?

I want to use several indicators to determine the goodness of fit of my model, such as R square, K-S, chi-square etc. What should I call them? Can I call them goodness-of-fit indicators? I see a ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

How do you pronounce BOBYQA?

This question might seem subjective, but I ask because there is some precedent on this site. I and my colleagues have always pronounced the name of this optimizer as "bobby cue ay" (which also gives ...
7
votes
3answers
388 views

What is the difference between learning and inference?

Machine learning research papers often treat learning and inference as two separate tasks, but it is not quite clear to me what the distinction is. In this book for example they use Bayesian ...
2
votes
2answers
53 views

What is an isotropic covariance matrix?

Could somebody explain to me in simple terms what an isotropic covariance matrix is? I can't find anything online.
6
votes
1answer
117 views

A name for operator-dependent cross-product

Suppose that we have a $\\n\times p$ matrix $\mathbf{M}$. Different transformations using different column-wise operators can lead to a new $\\p\times p$ symmetric matrix $\mathbf{S}$. For example, ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Difference between Discrimination, Calibration, Accuracy and Precision

I have trouble understanding these terms: a.) Discrimination. b.) Calibration. c.) Accuracy. d.) Precision. I really get confused with the books I am reading, ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Confusion regarding terminology related to the junction tree algorithm

As far as I understand, the "junction tree algorithm" is a general inference framework which roughly consists of the four steps 1) triangulate, 2) construct junction tree, 3) propagate ...
81
votes
16answers
7k views

What are the most misused statistics terms that we should care to correct?

Statistics is everywhere; common usage of statistical terms is, however, often unclear. The terms probability and odds are used interchangeable in lay English away from casinos and horse races, and ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

“$X$ follows $Poisson(\theta)$ and an i.i.d. sample $X_1,…,X_n$ has been drawn”?

What does "$X$ follows $Poisson(\theta)$ and an i.i.d. sample $X_1,...,X_n$ has been drawn" mean? Does $X$ follows $Poisson(\theta)$ $\implies$ $(X_1,...,X_n) \sim Poisson(\theta)$ or Does $X$ ...
4
votes
1answer
49 views

Are there two definitions of the word bias?

I hear the term bias being thrown around a lot in statistical literature. For example, By using mean-wise imputation, we are adding bias to our estimate. Another example, The ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

What do we call a set of Gaussians with the same covariance matrix?

What do we call a set of Gaussian distributions with the same covariance but different means? Is there a particular term for that? I mean the Gaussians are like: $N(\mu_1,\Sigma), N(\mu_2,\Sigma), ...
3
votes
2answers
97 views

Meaning of “missing by design” in longitudinal studies

I'm French and I'm reading an English book. I don't understand the term "when missingness is by design" — what does "by design" mean?
0
votes
1answer
27 views

What is the difference between stride and subsample in convolutional neural networks?

Is there any difference between stride and subsample in convolutional neural networks?
0
votes
0answers
13 views

tall, wide, big, small - qualitative descriptions

I was reading this link (link) where the authors say For "tall" data we cover a wide range of... and For "wide" data we discuss various forms... There is of course the ...
16
votes
3answers
367 views

Does this distribution have a name? $f(x)\propto\exp(-|x-\mu|^p/\beta)$

It occurred to me today that the distribution $$ f(x)\propto\exp\left(-\frac{|x-\mu|^p}{\beta}\right) $$ could be viewed as a compromise between the Gaussian and Laplace distributions, for ...
5
votes
1answer
75 views

Do we say that the $y_i$'s are i.i.d. if $n_iy_i \sim \text{Binomial}(n_i, \theta)$?

If $y_i$'s are independent and for given $n_i$, $$n_iy_i \sim \text{Binomial}(n_i, \theta)$$ Could we say that $y_i$'s are i.i.d.? If not, then what's the proper way to address such problems?
6
votes
1answer
397 views

Is regression with L1 regularization the same as Lasso, and with L2 regularization the same as ridge regression? And how to write “Lasso”?

I'm a software engineer learning machine learning, particularly through Andrew Ng's machine learning courses. While studying linear regression with regularization, I've found terms that are confusing: ...
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Term for incremental evaluation of data based on time?

When I test an algorithm's ability to classify dated samples over time, I will simulate it's use in a fictional past by iterating over each time period in order, training it on all samples dated ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Problems in notations in a paper on Bayesian space-time models

Suppose I have been given some process $Y$. Let $Y(s,t)$ denote the value of process at location $s$ and time $t$. For my experiment, I consider a model described as - $$Y(s,t) = \mu(s) + ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Meaning of “T-vector of time series values”?

I am currently studying a paper on Hierarchical Bayesian space-time models. In that, we have denoted $Y(s,t)$ to be the process of interest ate location $s$ and time $t$ in a gridded space-time. $Y(s, ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Terminology: Vector, attributes, and matrices in a dataset

I am confused about the terms "vectors", "attributes", and "matrix" when applied to a dataset. I know that attributes are the features or columns of the dataset, and the matrix is $N \times M$ data ...
3
votes
2answers
128 views

Translation of the term “data science” into Russian

What is "data science" in Russian? I'm interested in the context of a title of the job or a college course, or an academic paper. I'm not asking it in the Russian SE because it's a professional term, ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

Nesting terminology in lmer

Suppose I have the following nested lmer structure: lmer(Y ~ X1 + X2 + X1:X2 + (1 | A) + (1 | A:B), data=d) which is the same ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Where is the network in memory networks?

The paper Weston, Jason, Sumit Chopra, and Antoine Bordes. "Memory networks." arXiv preprint arXiv:1410.3916 (2014). introduces memory networks. The given definition is as follows: Where is the ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

bad fit - nomenclature for breeds

Question: What is it called when one uses a basis, like the pure line instead of the sigmoid/logistic, in a manner that grossly departs from the "physics" of the problem? There should be a word for ...
7
votes
4answers
230 views

What is the mathematically rigorous definition of chunky data?

When in the workplace, certain measurement-taking devices are subject to different numerical accuracy; in some cases, the accuracy can be pretty weak (i.e., to one or two significant values only). ...
129
votes
11answers
12k views

What is a data scientist?

Having recently graduated from my PhD program in statistics, I had for the last couple of months began searching for work in the field of statistics. Almost every company I considered had a job ...
4
votes
1answer
70 views

“Consistent estimator” or “consistent estimate”?

Question: Are both expressions "consistent estimator" and "consistent estimate" meaningful? The quote below is intended to be illustrative; however, I am interested in the question above in a ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

What is $C$ in the four parameter logistic Law?

It is well known that the four parameter logistic law has the following form $$ F(x)=D+\frac{A-D}{1+\Big(\frac{x}{C}\Big)^B} $$ What characterise this curve is its four parameters. A=starting ...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

Meaning of “reconstruction error” in PCA and LDA

I am implementing PCA, LDA, and Naive Bayes, for compression and classification respectively (implementing both an LDA for compression and classification). I have the code written and everything ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Converting between different accuracy/error metrics

I am trying to compare model accuracy between several different measurement metrics. For example, some citations use accuracy while other use error. That one is rather obvious, but there are lots of ...
6
votes
1answer
87 views

Is there a word for believing events are independent when they are not?

This is sort of like the opposite of the gamblers fallacy, although it's not the "inverse gamblers fallacy". For instance, if I observe that in some condition, the expression of Gene A is elevated ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Should the arithmetic mean of a subset of population data be annotated as sample mean?

If I have population data, and I want to calculate the arithmetic mean of a subset of the population data (e.g. for a certain category of values within a certain range of $n$ observations), is the ...
14
votes
2answers
921 views

Why is the logistic distribution called “logistic”?

What is "logistic" about the logistic distribution, in a common sense way? What is the etymology of and the lexical rationale for the name, not just pure math definition?
3
votes
1answer
148 views

Data space, variable space, observation space, model space (e.g. in linear regression)

Suppose we have the data matrix $\mathbf{X}$, which is $n$-by-$p$, and the label vector $Y$, which is $n$-by-one. Here, each row of the matrix is an observation, and each column corresponds to a ...