Indicates questions asking about the use and meaning of specific technical words/concepts in statistics.

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0
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1answer
23 views

Is structural equation modeling (SEM) just another name of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)?

I am reading some material about structural equation modeling. I found it to be extremely similar to confirmatory factor analysis - modeling a construct as the linear combination of several other ...
19
votes
3answers
898 views

Why are there two spellings of “heteroskedastic” or “heteroscedastic”?

I frequently see both the spellings "heteroskedastic" and "heteroscedastic", and similarly for "homoscedastic" and "homoskedastic". There seems to be no difference in meaning between the "c" and the ...
1
vote
1answer
11 views

Multifactorial analysis of variance of repeated measurements-literature

What is the difference between multivariate and multifactor ANOVA? Does anybody have any pointers to downloadable literature about multifactorial analysis of variance of repeated measurements?
17
votes
2answers
637 views

Does this discrete distribution have a name?

Does this discrete distribution have a name? For $i \in 1...N$ $f(i) = \frac{1}{N} \sum_{j = i}^N \frac{1}{j}$ I came across this distribution from the following: I have a list of $N$ items ranked ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Terminology for comparing anwers to a set of reference questions

I´m conducting a questionnaire in order to examine the behavior of drivers of electric vehicles when providing information, such as parking time, to a charging station. For several reasons it is ...
1
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0answers
21 views

How to call extreme samples in a Monte Carlo simulation for hypothesis testing?

For many hypothesis tests, Monte Carlo methods are used to estimate the empirical $p$-value which is defined as $$p=\#{(T_{sample} > T_{observed})}/N.$$ Is there a name for the samples with ...
3
votes
1answer
71 views

What is the covariance called when it is not divided by N?

I noticed that in signal processing they have this term called cross-covariance. The cross covariance function produces covariances of two functions with different lags. At the center of the vector ...
0
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0answers
13 views

The differences between criterion validity and operational validity

In some psychological articles, I have seen the term "operational validity". It is often used instead of "criterion validity". What are the differences between these two concepts?
0
votes
1answer
33 views

What is the difference between simple histogram and histogram LBP?

What is the difference between a simple histogram and a histogram LBP (local binary pattern)? Can someone provide the intuition behind histogram LBP?
0
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0answers
5 views

what is the drawback of DLBP(Dominant local binary pattern)?

Although the DLBP features encapsulate more textural information than the conventional LBP features, they lack the consideration of distant pixel interactions. The reason is that the binary patterns ...
0
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0answers
10 views

What are Bayes Factors and how can they be used to demonstrate a null finding of “no difference” between two groups?

A prominent journal in my field recently updated its advice to authors to state: Null findings: Authors should only report ‘no difference’ between conditions or lack of associations if they can ...
6
votes
1answer
243 views

what do we mean by hyperparameters? [duplicate]

Can anyone give me full details about what we mean by hyperparameters, and what in the Dirichlet distribution are called hyperparameters? A practice example for the estimation of those parameters ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Term for non-quantitative, non-qualitative variables?

Disclaimer: I am a coder -- not at all a research scientist, data scientist, or statistician. I support an online survey application that is then used to generate aggregate and individual data ...
3
votes
1answer
58 views

Similarities and dissimilarities in classical multidimensional scaling

I am having trouble reconciling between several terms in MDS. According to [1], Section 14.8, Classical MDS takes similarities as inputs. In [2], also cited in Wikipedia, Classical MDS takes ...
3
votes
2answers
81 views

Representative elements of a set

I'm looking for the technical name of the following problem. It sounds like a standard machine learning technique, but I'm not familiar with the field, and can't seem to find it. Let's say that we ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

Why moments of expectation are known as “moments” [duplicate]

I am studying moments of expectation, and seen the formulas for computing the moments. There is one thing I am not clear of, and not getting answer for that. Why moments are named as moments? To my ...
3
votes
1answer
36 views

What is the difference between buckets and bins?

When calculating a histogram we do data binning, or group a number of more or less continuous values into a smaller number of "bins". But in bucket sort we set up buckets and assign a bucket to each ...
4
votes
3answers
213 views

versus (vs.): how to properly use this word in data analysis

This question is probably more about the English language than statistics, but I have decided to ask it here anyway. When we compare two groups of samples, let's say Treatment vs. Control, and we ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Some Terminology in Multilevel Analysis

What is the meaning of the following terms in multilevel analysis: cross-level interaction; micro level; macro level?
4
votes
3answers
369 views

Why do we say “Residual standard error”?

A standard error is the estimated standard deviation $\hat \sigma(\hat\theta)$ of an estimator $\hat\theta$ for a parameter $\theta$. Why is the estimated standard deviation of the residuals called ...
0
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2answers
59 views

Lifetime or Failure Time

Lifetime / Survival time / Failure time : the time to the occurrence of event (always nonnegative) . Lifetime and Survival time can be synonymous . ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

Studying complex systems (complexity)

Complex socio-technical systems is one my research interests. Since I plan to further study such systems and related phenomena, I've done a bit of reading and ran across various books, such as Bar-Yam ...
0
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0answers
19 views

Using the terms significance, probability or likelihood, in connection with estimators

Imagine a number of variates $x_i$, and a number of processes $P_k$ which depend on these variables, in an unknown way (ie no clear cut formulas to work with). Now consider the scenario where you ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Is the bias of a coin a latent variable or a parameter?

Consider the standard Bayesian estimation problem in which the bias $p$ of a coin is picked uniformly at random from $[0, 1]$, the coin is tossed a few times, and $p$ is then estimated from the ...
2
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1answer
36 views

Is there any difference between Random and Probabilistic?

It seems i can't directly say probabilistic and random are identical . But this is telling : random experiment is a probabilistic experiment. Is there any difference between Random and ...
0
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2answers
58 views

Are Event and Outcome synonymous?

Outcome : An outcome is a result of a random experiment. Event : A single result of an experiment. Are Event and Outcome synonymous ?
3
votes
1answer
92 views

Two broad categories of dimensionality reduction

As a starter in dimensionality reduction (DR), I recently acquired the following understanding. There are two very broad categories of DR techniques: We can compute an analytic form of mapping from ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Clarification in the terms of log-likelihood expression

I am trying to implement Eq(7) given below from Parameter estimation for Linear dynamical system where Q is a 2 by 2 covariance matrix of the process noise. The model is ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

What is the difference (if any) between 'harmonized' and 'standardized data?

I am trying to describe the process of combining multiple datasets into a common format - e.g. a single database that enforces a common vocabulary, scale, and structure. However, I am unclear if I ...
2
votes
0answers
28 views

Ratio “observed-to-expected” - how do you call it?

Is there a name for the ratio of the observed count in a cell (say, ij) to the expected count in it - $O_{ij}/E_{ij}$? Likelihood ratio Chi-square (= G-square) statistic is based on these quantities. ...
4
votes
0answers
59 views

What's the distinction between a “Null hypothesis statistical test” and any other test?

A recent hot topic of discussion concerns a journal banning the use of "null hypothesis statistical testing procedures (NHSTPs)" from articles submitted to the journal. I see this term used by some ...
2
votes
1answer
18 views

Terminology: output of a regression model as input to another regression model

I have a question about terminology. I've constructed a multiple linear regression model for a variable X. This model is in turn used to estimate values of X that are used as input when constructing ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

What is the difference between independent variable and a feature?

I ran into this question which asks the identification of various terms for a linear regression function (f). I am confused about the "independent variable" definition. What is the difference ...
0
votes
1answer
83 views

Mathematical Modeling and Statistical Modeling

What is the difference between mathematical modeling and statistical modeling? I only know that a mathematical model is deterministic while a statistical model is stochastic. Is that all to answer ...
0
votes
2answers
27 views

Observed and Observable

What is observed and what is observable? I found this two word frequently in the context of random variable and realization of ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

What is industrial statistics?

We have a course titled "Industrial Statistics". But I don't understand what is industrial statistics? What I have understood after searching some sites is only that Industrial statistics ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

What is intervention?

An intervention is strategy to produce change among individuals or entire population. Is the definition of intervention correct ?
4
votes
2answers
95 views

How to properly state the average of a discrete number in a report?

I'm wording a report on the averages of a discrete variable, and am trying to get the most appropriate sounding wording. Consider the able below: ...
-1
votes
2answers
42 views

What is meant by the term “convergence” in Restricted Boltzmann Machine?

I have come across the term "convergence" in training RBM. Can someone give a brief definition / explanation of it?
10
votes
2answers
341 views

What is the “partial” in partial least squares methods?

In partial least squares regression (PLSR) or partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM), what does the term "partial" refer to?
15
votes
2answers
1k views

Why are “time series” called such?

Why are “time series” called such? Series means sum of a sequence. Why is it time Series, not time sequence? Is time the independent variable?
3
votes
2answers
47 views

What is the proper name of a model that takes as input the output of another model?

Thanks in advance for the help. I am writing a paper and for the life of me can't remember the proper term for a model that works as follows. ...
6
votes
2answers
48 views

Can 'selection bias' refer to bias in the intervention as well as in the sampling?

I have been using the term selection bias to refer to a situation where (e.g.) schools with certain pre-existing characteristics are more likely to be included in (e.g.) a teacher training programme ...
5
votes
3answers
397 views

Returning unlikely results from a probability distribution

The Law of large numbers addresses the issue of the average result of a large number of random trials. Is there a similar law which addresses the probability of obtaining an unusual result for a large ...
-1
votes
2answers
43 views

What is the difference between a neural network and a perceptron?

Is there any difference between the terms "neural network" and "perceptron"?
4
votes
1answer
102 views

Is there any difference between $r^2$ and $R^2$?

The correlation coefficient is usually written with a capital $R$ but sometimes not. I wonder if there really is a difference between $r^2$ and $R^2$? Can $r$ mean something other than a correlation ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Does $R^2$ interpretable as the proportion of *variation* explained, or the proportion of *variance* explained?

What is the correct term to be used in the title phrase? Wikipedia says: $\dots$ The coefficient of determination $R^2$ is a measure of the global fit of the model. Specifically, $R^2$ is an ...
9
votes
1answer
515 views

How fair is it to use the word “predict” for (logistic) regression?

My understanding is that even regression does not give causality. It can only give association between y variable and x variables and possibly a direction. Am I correct? I've often found phrases ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Training a function that maps n-dim to n-dim

As an example, say the input is an array of numbers representing an audio snippet and the output is a transformed/filtered version of it. What would be the proper term for that? Which are examples of ...
3
votes
1answer
32 views

Is accuracy = 1- test error rate

Apologies if this is a very obvious question, but I have been reading various posts and can't seem to find a good confirmation. In the case of classification, is a classifier's accuracy = 1- test ...