Indicates questions asking about the use and meaning of specific technical words/concepts in statistics.

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0
votes
1answer
30 views

What is the difference between independent variable and a feature?

I ran into this question which asks the identification of various terms for a linear regression function (f). I am confused about the "independent variable" definition. What is the difference ...
0
votes
1answer
70 views

Mathematical Modeling and Statistical Modeling

What is the difference between mathematical modeling and statistical modeling? I only know that a mathematical model is deterministic while a statistical model is stochastic. Is that all to answer ...
0
votes
2answers
24 views

Observed and Observable

What is observed and what is observable? I found this two word frequently in the context of random variable and realization of ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

What is industrial statistics?

We have a course titled "Industrial Statistics". But I don't understand what is industrial statistics? What I have understood after searching some sites is only that Industrial statistics ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

What is intervention?

An intervention is strategy to produce change among individuals or entire population. Is the definition of intervention correct ?
3
votes
2answers
86 views

How to properly state the average of a discrete number in a report?

I'm wording a report on the averages of a discrete variable, and am trying to get the most appropriate sounding wording. Consider the able below: ...
-1
votes
2answers
38 views

What is meant by the term “convergence” in Restricted Boltzmann Machine?

I have come across the term "convergence" in training RBM. Can someone give a brief definition / explanation of it?
10
votes
2answers
248 views

What is the “partial” in partial least squares methods?

In partial least squares regression (PLSR) or partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM), what does the term "partial" refer to?
15
votes
2answers
1k views

Why are “time series” called such?

Why are “time series” called such? Series means sum of a sequence. Why is it time Series, not time sequence? Is time the independent variable?
3
votes
2answers
42 views

What is the proper name of a model that takes as input the output of another model?

Thanks in advance for the help. I am writing a paper and for the life of me can't remember the proper term for a model that works as follows. ...
6
votes
2answers
47 views

Can 'selection bias' refer to bias in the intervention as well as in the sampling?

I have been using the term selection bias to refer to a situation where (e.g.) schools with certain pre-existing characteristics are more likely to be included in (e.g.) a teacher training programme ...
5
votes
3answers
384 views

Returning unlikely results from a probability distribution

The Law of large numbers addresses the issue of the average result of a large number of random trials. Is there a similar law which addresses the probability of obtaining an unusual result for a large ...
-1
votes
2answers
39 views

What is the difference between a neural network and a perceptron?

Is there any difference between the terms "neural network" and "perceptron"?
3
votes
1answer
83 views

Is there any difference between $r^2$ and $R^2$?

The correlation coefficient is usually written with a capital $R$ but sometimes not. I wonder if there really is a difference between $r^2$ and $R^2$? Can $r$ mean something other than a correlation ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Does $R^2$ interpretable as the proportion of *variation* explained, or the proportion of *variance* explained?

What is the correct term to be used in the title phrase? Wikipedia says: $\dots$ The coefficient of determination $R^2$ is a measure of the global fit of the model. Specifically, $R^2$ is an ...
9
votes
1answer
494 views

How fair is it to use the word “predict” for (logistic) regression?

My understanding is that even regression does not give causality. It can only give association between y variable and x variables and possibly a direction. Am I correct? I've often found phrases ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Training a function that maps n-dim to n-dim

As an example, say the input is an array of numbers representing an audio snippet and the output is a transformed/filtered version of it. What would be the proper term for that? Which are examples of ...
3
votes
1answer
17 views

Is accuracy = 1- test error rate

Apologies if this is a very obvious question, but I have been reading various posts and can't seem to find a good confirmation. In the case of classification, is a classifier's accuracy = 1- test ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

What is the difference between errors and residuals?

While these two ubiquitous terms are often used synonymously, there sometimes seems to be a distinction. Is there indeed a difference, or are they exactly synonymous?
0
votes
1answer
22 views

What exactly is a hyperparameter?

Title says it all. I have seen both "the hyperparameter of the Dirichlet distribution" and "the parameter of the Dirichlet distribution" What are the differences?
-1
votes
1answer
31 views

What does posterior “over” parameters $\alpha$ exactly mean? [closed]

From my understanding the posterior "over" parameters $\alpha$ is $$p(D|\alpha)$$ and not $$p(\alpha|D),$$ is it correct?
-1
votes
1answer
23 views

Exploring multiple semantic clusters of a given set of terms

I have a list of N object categories(e.g. apple, cell-phone, horse, chair, watch). Are there any methods of obtaining various clusters based on attributes of these categories ? For example, one ...
7
votes
1answer
412 views

Is the machine learning community abusing “conditioned on” and “parametrized by”?

Say, $X$ is dependent on $\alpha$. Rigorously speaking, if $X$ and $\alpha$ are both random variables, we could write $p(X\mid\alpha)$; however, if $X$ is a random variable and $\alpha$ is a ...
10
votes
5answers
362 views

Inference vs. estimation?

What are the differences between "inference" and "estimation" under the context of machine learning? As a newbie, I feel that we infer random variables and estimate the model parameters. Is my this ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Terminology Numerator Baye's Rule?

I am considering this formulation of Baye's Rule $\mathrm{Pr}(\theta | D) = \frac {\mathrm{Pr}(\theta)\mathrm{Pr}(D|\theta)}{\int \mathrm{Pr}(D|\theta)\mathrm{Pr}(\theta)\mathrm{d}\theta}$ Is there ...
4
votes
1answer
144 views

Applied statistics vs Mathematical statistics

The Help Center for this site says we can ask question about, among other things, mathematical statistics. I am curious to find out what mathematical statistics is. And I thought it might be easier ...
6
votes
2answers
108 views

Is 'indirect effect' the same as 'mediation'?

Is it correct to use 'indirect effect' and 'mediation' interchangeably in all situations? I mean if we know that A influences B and B influences C. Can we conclude that the effect is mediated by B ...
5
votes
1answer
84 views

Why do we use the term multicollinearity, when the vectors representing two variables are never truly collinear?

When two vectors $a$ and $b$ are collinear, then $a = xb$, (where $x$ is a scalar) so in linear algebra, collinearity is a narrowly and clearly defined (and binary) concept. Two vectors -- in my ...
6
votes
1answer
376 views

What is cross-validation?

I'm having trouble understanding what cross-validation is. Also, what is the connection between cross-validation and the issue of model overfitting?
3
votes
1answer
57 views

Bayesian linear regression with continuous and binary covariates

I am interested in learning more about applying Bayesian linear models for covariates some of which are continuous and some are binary. What is the appropriate terminology for such models so that I ...
7
votes
2answers
110 views

How to describe a bin in a histogram?

What is common in the literature to refer to a certain bin in a histogram? For example, say I have a histogram with 4 bins. The first bin has all values between 1 to 2, second bin 2 to 3, and so on. ...
4
votes
1answer
33 views

What does the SEE measure?

Depending on context, I've seen the term "Standard Error of Estimate" used for both the standard deviation and for the variance of both the standard error and of the residuals. Is SEE a well-defined ...
8
votes
1answer
354 views

How does “Fundamental Theorem of Factor Analysis” apply to PCA, or how are PCA loadings defined?

I'm currently going through a slide set I have for "factor analysis" (PCA as far as I can tell). In it, the "fundamental theorem of factor analysis" is derived which claims that the correlation ...
8
votes
2answers
184 views

“Dummy variable” versus “indicator variable” for nominal/categorical data

"Dummy variable" and "indicator variable" are labels frequently used terms to describe membership in a category with 0/1 coding; usually 0: Not a member of category, 1: Member of category. On ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

What is the difference between a distribution and a semi-distribution?

I hope the question to be clear. The name "semi-distribution" certainly implies some meaning, yet, I'm unable to conclude what really means. I found the term on this paper: ...
10
votes
2answers
593 views

How to understand “nonlinear” as in “nonlinear dimensionality reduction”?

I am trying to understand the differences between the linear dimensionality reduction methods (e.g., PCA) and the nonlinear ones (e.g., Isomap). I cannot quite understand what the (non)linearity ...
4
votes
1answer
71 views

impose an intercept on lm in r [duplicate]

I am converting a high-dimensional model to a lower dimensional model by fitting a sliding window of it to a linear (parametric) model and looking at the evolution of parameter values over time. I'm ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Confidence interval violating physical boundaries

Colleagues, A model is supposed to predict a value that represents proportion, namely, the predicted value should be in [0,1]. However, model is just a linear regression, producing confidence ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

How to call “Inliers” and “Outliers” in French

I asked this on the French Exchange site, but this is stat related so... How do you say "Inliers" and "Outliers" (as with RANSAC) in French? The Wikipedia article doesn't translate them, but honestly ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Are “Probability Distribution” and “Probability Function” the same thing?

I have these two definitions for "Probability distribution" and "Probability function": Probability Distribution: Assigns a probability to each measurable subset of the possible outcomes of a ...
0
votes
1answer
160 views

Interpreting rpart output for decision trees?

How do I go about selecting the ideal location to use for pruning the tree here? Or maybe someone can explain to me in simple language what this output means. I see that rel_error is constantly ...
5
votes
3answers
261 views

What is the best way to remember the difference between sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy, and recall?

Despite having seen these terms 502847894789 times, I cannot for the life of me remember the difference between sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy, and recall. They're pretty simple ...
3
votes
2answers
129 views

Name for outer product of gradient approximation of Hessian

Is there a name for approximating the Hessian as the outer product of the gradient with itself? If one is approximating the Hessian of the log-loss, then the outer product of the gradient with itself ...
0
votes
2answers
44 views

Use of the term “outcome”

I know that a particular value a variable can have is called an outcome. Sometimes I see that a dependent variable is also called an outcome. Is the latter use a legitimate practice or bad use of the ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Ways to express the relationship between a latent variable and observables

How do I express concisely the idea that the values of a number of observables is determined stochastically by the value of a latent variable? Can I say: The value of the latent variable is ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Cannot intuitively grasp “Standard normal deviate”

I cannot intuitively grasp the meaning of "Standard normal deviates". I think It would help if you provided me with either/all of the following: (i) real life examples of their application, (ii) an ...
8
votes
5answers
296 views

What exactly are censored data?

I have read different descriptions of censored data: A) As explained in this thread answer, unquantified data below or above a certain threshold is censored. Unquantified means data is above or below ...
2
votes
1answer
148 views

What is the difference between logistic and logit regression?

What is the difference between logistic and logit regression? I understand that they are similar (or even the same thing) but could someone explain the difference(s) between these two? Is one about ...
3
votes
2answers
152 views

What makes a GLM Hierarchical?

Wikipedia defines a Hierarchical GLM as: Hierarchical linear models (or multilevel regression) organizes the data into a hierarchy of regressions, for example where A is regressed on B, and B ...