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Refers to a measure of association between two binary variables. If $X,Y$ are binary outcomes and $p_{ij} = P(X=i,Y=j)$, the odds ratio is equal to $${\rm OR} = \frac{ p_{11} p_{00} }{ p_{10} p_{01} }$$ When ${\rm OR} < 1$, then indicates a negative relationship between the two variables; ${\rm OR} > 1$ indicates a positive relationship. More info is available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odds_ratio