# Tags

A tag is a keyword or label that categorizes your question with other, similar questions. Using the right tags makes it easier for others to find and answer your question.

 Type to find tags:
 simulation× 670 A vast area which includes generating results from computer models. autocorrelation× 656 the correlation of a series of data with itself at some lag. This is an important topic particularly in the analysis of time-series data. multilevel-analysis× 655 Statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data sets comprising several levels of hierarchy of units of analysis (e.g., students nested in classes nested in schools; observations nested in pa… covariance× 652 a quantity used to measure the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables. The covariance is unscaled, & thus often difficult to interpret; when scaled by th… factor-analysis× 647 a dimensionality reduction latent variable technique which replaces inter-correlating variables by a smaller number of continuous latent variables called factors. The factors are be… regression-coefficients× 645 The parameters of a regression model. expected-value× 634 a weighted average of all possible values a random variable can take on, with the weights equal to the probability of taking on that value. mcmc× 632 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) refers to a class of methods for generating samples from a target distribution by generating random numbers from a Markov Chain whose stationary distribution is the tar… standard-error× 626 Refers to the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a statistic calculated from a sample. Standard errors are often required when forming confidence intervals or testing hypotheses about … missing-data× 624 When the data present lack of information (gaps), i.e., are not complete. Hence, it is important to consider this feature when performing a analysis or test. outliers× 621 an observation that appears to be unusual or not well described relative to a simple characterization of a dataset. A discomfiting possibility is that these data come from a different po… inference× 612 Inference, in a statistical context, refers to drawing conclusions from data containing an element of randomness introduced by e.g. measurement error, sampling variation, or assignment of experimental… ordinal× 610 "Ordinal" data refers to data with values categorical yet underlying quantitative: the categories can be ordered by magnitude, but the exact magnitude of the spacing between them is undetermined. [Not… survey× 605 collect a sample from a population. Surveying often refers to sampling of human populations and is primarily done by administering questionnaires or interviewing indivi… cart× 575 'Classification And Regression Trees'. CART is a popular data mining technique. goodness-of-fit× 564 Goodness of fit tests indicate whether or not it is reasonable to assume that a random sample comes from a specific distribution. residuals× 564 the actual values minus the predicted values. Many statistical models make assumptions about the error, which is estimated by the residuals. binary-data× 557 A binary variable takes one of two values, typically coded as "0" and "1". model× 555 a formalization of relationships between variables in the form of mathematical equations. The model is statistical as the variables are not deterministically but stochastically … random-effects-model× 554 Parameters associated with the particular levels of a covariate are sometimes called the “effects” of the levels. If the levels that are observed represent a random sample from the set of all possible… terminology× 520 Indicates questions asking about the use and meaning of specific technical words/concepts in statistics. sas× 513 a proprietary cross-platform general-purpose statistical software package. [Official Website](http://www.sas.com/index.html) nonlinear-regression× 513 only for regression models (q.v.) in which the response is a nonlinear functions of the *parameters* (not because it's a nonlinear function of the *predictors*). deep-learning× 506 a new area of Machine Learning research concerned with the technologies used for learning hierarchical representations of data, mainly done with deep neural networks (i.e. networks with two or more hi… stochastic-processes× 504 A stochastic process describes evolution of random variables/systems over time and/or space and/or any other index set. It has applications in areas such as econometrics, weather, signal processing, e… cox-model× 502 a very popular, semi-parametric method for survival analysis. normalization× 501 A way of re-expressing data to make their values lie within a specified range. algorithms× 496 a a set of one or more computations that will produce a calculated result. All statistics methods are algorithms. Algorithms can be simple, such as calculating a percentage, or can be … lmer× 489 functions in the R package lme4 that fit mixed effects models (ie, models that include fixed & random effects). These models can be non-linear in the sense that the… proportion× 486 the fraction of some total that is of a particular kind, either (i) as a count of one type of thing out of a total count, or (ii) as a component of a continuous variable. lasso× 484 A regularization method for regression models that shrinks coefficients towards zero, making some of them equal to zero. Thus lasso performs feature selection. monte-carlo× 479 Using (pseudo-)random numbers and the Law of Large Numbers to simulate the random behavior of a real system. multinomial× 474 A multivariate, discrete probability distribution used to describe the results of a random experiment where each of $n$ outcomes are placed into one of $k$ nominal categories. error× 473 its deviation from the true value, which may be unobservable (e.g., regression parameters), or observable (e.g., future realizations). Use the [error-message]… heteroscedasticity× 472 Non-constant variance along some continuum in a random process. independence× 472 independent when information on some of them tells you nothing about the probability of occurrence (/ distribution) of the others. Please DO NOT use this tag for indep…