6 formatting to make the maths appear on canvas, prior to this a ^2 and some brackets were off to the right

In simple linear regression, we have $$y = \beta_0 + \beta_1 x + u$$, where $$u \sim iid\;\mathcal N(0,\sigma^2)$$. I derived the estimator: $$\hat{\beta_1} = \frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ ,$$ where $$\bar{x}$$ and $$\bar{y}$$ are the sample means of $$x$$ and $$y$$.

Now I want to find the variance of $$\hat\beta_1$$. I derived something like the following: $$\text{Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2(1 - \frac{1}{n})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ .$$

The derivation is as follow:

\begin{align} \text{Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) & = \text{Var} \left(\frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2} \right) \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})\left(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_i + u_i - \frac{1}{n}\sum_j(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_j + u_j) \right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \beta_1 \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2 + \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x}) \left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right) \right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\text{Var}\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}) - \underbrace{E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right] }_{=0}\right)^2\right]\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right)^2 \right] \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})^2 \right]\;\;\;\;\text{ , since } u_i \text{ 's are iid} \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2E\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(E(u_i^2) - 2 \times E \left(u_i \times (\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right) + E\left(\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(\sigma^2 - \frac{2}{n}\sigma^2 + \frac{\sigma^2}{n}\right)\\ & = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\left(1 - \frac{1}{n}\right) \end{align}\begin{align} &\text{Var}(\hat{\beta_1})\\ & = \text{Var} \left(\frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2} \right) \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})\left(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_i + u_i - \frac{1}{n}\sum_j(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_j + u_j) \right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \beta_1 \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2 + \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x}) \left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right) \right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\text{Var}\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\;\times \\ &\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}) - \underbrace{E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right] }_{=0}\right)^2\right]\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right)^2 \right] \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})^2 \right]\;\;\;\;\text{ , since } u_i \text{ 's are iid} \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2E\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(E(u_i^2) - 2 \times E \left(u_i \times (\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right) + E\left(\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(\sigma^2 - \frac{2}{n}\sigma^2 + \frac{\sigma^2}{n}\right)\\ & = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\left(1 - \frac{1}{n}\right) \end{align}

Did I do something wrong here?

I know if I do everything in matrix notation, I would get $${\rm Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}$$. But I am trying to derive the answer without using the matrix notation just to make sure I understand the concepts.

In simple linear regression, we have $$y = \beta_0 + \beta_1 x + u$$, where $$u \sim iid\;\mathcal N(0,\sigma^2)$$. I derived the estimator: $$\hat{\beta_1} = \frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ ,$$ where $$\bar{x}$$ and $$\bar{y}$$ are the sample means of $$x$$ and $$y$$.

Now I want to find the variance of $$\hat\beta_1$$. I derived something like the following: $$\text{Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2(1 - \frac{1}{n})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ .$$

The derivation is as follow:

\begin{align} \text{Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) & = \text{Var} \left(\frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2} \right) \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})\left(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_i + u_i - \frac{1}{n}\sum_j(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_j + u_j) \right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \beta_1 \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2 + \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x}) \left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right) \right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\text{Var}\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}) - \underbrace{E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right] }_{=0}\right)^2\right]\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right)^2 \right] \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})^2 \right]\;\;\;\;\text{ , since } u_i \text{ 's are iid} \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2E\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(E(u_i^2) - 2 \times E \left(u_i \times (\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right) + E\left(\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(\sigma^2 - \frac{2}{n}\sigma^2 + \frac{\sigma^2}{n}\right)\\ & = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\left(1 - \frac{1}{n}\right) \end{align}

Did I do something wrong here?

I know if I do everything in matrix notation, I would get $${\rm Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}$$. But I am trying to derive the answer without using the matrix notation just to make sure I understand the concepts.

In simple linear regression, we have $$y = \beta_0 + \beta_1 x + u$$, where $$u \sim iid\;\mathcal N(0,\sigma^2)$$. I derived the estimator: $$\hat{\beta_1} = \frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ ,$$ where $$\bar{x}$$ and $$\bar{y}$$ are the sample means of $$x$$ and $$y$$.

Now I want to find the variance of $$\hat\beta_1$$. I derived something like the following: $$\text{Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2(1 - \frac{1}{n})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ .$$

The derivation is as follow:

\begin{align} &\text{Var}(\hat{\beta_1})\\ & = \text{Var} \left(\frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2} \right) \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})\left(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_i + u_i - \frac{1}{n}\sum_j(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_j + u_j) \right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \beta_1 \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2 + \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x}) \left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right) \right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\text{Var}\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\;\times \\ &\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}) - \underbrace{E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right] }_{=0}\right)^2\right]\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right)^2 \right] \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})^2 \right]\;\;\;\;\text{ , since } u_i \text{ 's are iid} \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2E\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(E(u_i^2) - 2 \times E \left(u_i \times (\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right) + E\left(\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(\sigma^2 - \frac{2}{n}\sigma^2 + \frac{\sigma^2}{n}\right)\\ & = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\left(1 - \frac{1}{n}\right) \end{align}

Did I do something wrong here?

I know if I do everything in matrix notation, I would get $${\rm Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}$$. But I am trying to derive the answer without using the matrix notation just to make sure I understand the concepts.

5 improved formatting

In simple linear regression, we have $$y = \beta_0 + \beta_1 x + u$$, where $$u \sim iid\;\mathcal N(0,\sigma^2)$$. I derived the estimator: $$\hat{\beta_1} = \frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ ,$$ where $$\bar{x}$$ and $$\bar{y}$$ are the sample means of $$x$$ and $$y$$.

Now I want to find the variance of $$\hat\beta_1$$. I derived something like the following: $${\rm Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2(1 - \frac{1}{n})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ .$$$$\text{Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2(1 - \frac{1}{n})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ .$$

The derivation is as follow:

\begin{align} Var(\hat{\beta_1})& = Var \left(\frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2} \right) \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} Var\left( \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})\left(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_i + u_i - \frac{1}{n}\sum_j(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_j + u_j) \right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} Var\left( \beta_1 \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2 + \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right) \right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}Var\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}) - \underbrace{E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right] }_{=0}\right)^2\right]\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right)^2 \right] \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})^2 \right]\;\;\;\;\text{ , since } u_i \text{ 's are iid} \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2E\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(E(u_i^2) - 2 \times E \left(u_i \times (\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right) + E\left(\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 (\sigma^2 - \frac{2}{n}\sigma^2 + \frac{\sigma^2}{n})\\ & = \frac{\sigma^2(1 - \frac{1}{n})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2} \end{align}\begin{align} \text{Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) & = \text{Var} \left(\frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2} \right) \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})\left(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_i + u_i - \frac{1}{n}\sum_j(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_j + u_j) \right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \beta_1 \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2 + \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x}) \left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right) \right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\text{Var}\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}) - \underbrace{E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right] }_{=0}\right)^2\right]\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right)^2 \right] \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})^2 \right]\;\;\;\;\text{ , since } u_i \text{ 's are iid} \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2E\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(E(u_i^2) - 2 \times E \left(u_i \times (\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right) + E\left(\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(\sigma^2 - \frac{2}{n}\sigma^2 + \frac{\sigma^2}{n}\right)\\ & = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\left(1 - \frac{1}{n}\right) \end{align}

Did I do something wrong here?

I know if I do everything in matrix notation, I would get $${\rm Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}$$. But I am trying to derive the answer without using the matrix notation just to make sure I understand the concepts.

In simple linear regression, we have $$y = \beta_0 + \beta_1 x + u$$, where $$u \sim iid\;\mathcal N(0,\sigma^2)$$. I derived the estimator: $$\hat{\beta_1} = \frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ ,$$ where $$\bar{x}$$ and $$\bar{y}$$ are the sample means of $$x$$ and $$y$$.

Now I want to find the variance of $$\hat\beta_1$$. I derived something like the following: $${\rm Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2(1 - \frac{1}{n})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ .$$

The derivation is as follow:

\begin{align} Var(\hat{\beta_1})& = Var \left(\frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2} \right) \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} Var\left( \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})\left(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_i + u_i - \frac{1}{n}\sum_j(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_j + u_j) \right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} Var\left( \beta_1 \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2 + \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right) \right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}Var\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}) - \underbrace{E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right] }_{=0}\right)^2\right]\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right)^2 \right] \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})^2 \right]\;\;\;\;\text{ , since } u_i \text{ 's are iid} \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2E\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(E(u_i^2) - 2 \times E \left(u_i \times (\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right) + E\left(\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 (\sigma^2 - \frac{2}{n}\sigma^2 + \frac{\sigma^2}{n})\\ & = \frac{\sigma^2(1 - \frac{1}{n})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2} \end{align}

Did I do something wrong here?

I know if I do everything in matrix notation, I would get $${\rm Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}$$. But I am trying to derive the answer without using the matrix notation just to make sure I understand the concepts.

In simple linear regression, we have $$y = \beta_0 + \beta_1 x + u$$, where $$u \sim iid\;\mathcal N(0,\sigma^2)$$. I derived the estimator: $$\hat{\beta_1} = \frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ ,$$ where $$\bar{x}$$ and $$\bar{y}$$ are the sample means of $$x$$ and $$y$$.

Now I want to find the variance of $$\hat\beta_1$$. I derived something like the following: $$\text{Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2(1 - \frac{1}{n})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\ .$$

The derivation is as follow:

\begin{align} \text{Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) & = \text{Var} \left(\frac{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})(y_i - \bar{y})}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2} \right) \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})\left(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_i + u_i - \frac{1}{n}\sum_j(\beta_0 + \beta_1x_j + u_j) \right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} \text{Var}\left( \beta_1 \sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2 + \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x}) \left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right) \right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\text{Var}\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}) - \underbrace{E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right] }_{=0}\right)^2\right]\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\left( \sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right)^2 \right] \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2} E\left[\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})^2 \right]\;\;\;\;\text{ , since } u_i \text{ 's are iid} \\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2E\left(u_i - \sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(E(u_i^2) - 2 \times E \left(u_i \times (\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n})\right) + E\left(\sum_j \frac{u_j}{n}\right)^2\right)\\ & = \frac{1}{(\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2)^2}\sum_i(x_i - \bar{x})^2 \left(\sigma^2 - \frac{2}{n}\sigma^2 + \frac{\sigma^2}{n}\right)\\ & = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}\left(1 - \frac{1}{n}\right) \end{align}

Did I do something wrong here?

I know if I do everything in matrix notation, I would get $${\rm Var}(\hat{\beta_1}) = \frac{\sigma^2}{\sum_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2}$$. But I am trying to derive the answer without using the matrix notation just to make sure I understand the concepts.

4 edited title

# Derive Variance of regression coefficient in simple linear regression

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