I have a data set having year-wise monthly average of minimum and maximum temperatures of 32 stations around the country since 1948. The latitude and longitude of the stations are given as well. I have been asked to dig deep into the data set and analyze the much I can. The main objective is to understand the trend and possibly predict the future values.
I have little experience to work with such data sets. I usually like to use R. I have three questions in particular.
1) I can see that the latitude and longitude of an station are given to be 25.72 and 89.26 respectively. The corresponding Y and X coordinates are calculated as 844822.3 and 426172.9. I don't understand how they have calculated this. Can anyone explain?
2) What model should I fit to the data to get a good prediction of future values? Since I have the data since 1948, I might use a time series model, but here I have the latitude and longitude information too. So is there any model that can use these information too? Is there any particular package in R that will be useful for me?
3) Can I use R to find interesting plots mapping my findings or different summary statistics in map of the country? Some 2D or 3D plots will be excellent for me.
Many thanks for your kind response in advance.