How do you estimate degrees of freedoms for derived measurements?
I want to assess the significance of the distance of an independent data point to a regression line. I can easily calculate the (vertical) distance between the data point and the regression line, and I get the uncertainty of the distance from the uncertainties of slope and intercept of the linear regression via Gaussian error propagation. However, what are the degrees of freedom?
The linear regression line has been calculated from
n data points, thus its degrees of freedom is
n-2. The additional measurement is independent, so I get another degree of freedom, bringing the total to
Also, should I estimate the uncertainty of the independent measurement using the variance of the residuals of the regression, since the measurement process is the same for both the data that went into the fit and the independent data point? I guess this would reduce the degrees of freedom again?