So I have a hypothesis that goes as follows: the relationship between gender of the leader and perceived effectiveness is moderated by company performance. I did some analyses on this and this moderation is significant.

The point is, however, I need to figure out whether female leaders in high company performance are perceived to be less effective than male leaders. In other words, is there a significant difference between the effectiveness of males and females in the SPECIFIC group of high company performance. I can't for the life of me figure out how to do this in SPSS so any pointers would be greatly appreciated.

  • $\begingroup$ At least in the social sciences, you'd follow up a significant moderation with simple slopes analysis - that is, is the effect of gender on perceived effectiveness significantly different from 0 when company performance of 1 SD above the mean? This might be helpful for performing that in SPSS: psych-it.com.au/Psychlopedia/article.asp?id=259 $\endgroup$ Commented Oct 5, 2014 at 6:16

1 Answer 1


It's a long time since I used SPSS, so I am unsure of how you'd specifically achieve it in SPSS, but I'd probably be looking to set up a contrast that represents this specific difference and test that.

For example, such a contrast might be set up like so:

    Group                  Contrast 
(Sex x Performance)          code

Female.High                   1
Male.High                    -1
Female.Low                    0
Male.Low                      0

You could then do a one-tailed test: If the coefficient of the contrast is significantly smaller than 0, the conclusion would be that female leaders in high company performance are perceived to be less effective than male leaders.

  • $\begingroup$ Dear Glen, how about other combinations, say for example you have a situation like this one, can we compare A1-B1 (A1 minus B1) with A2-B2 (A2 minus B2)? $\endgroup$
    – rnorouzian
    Commented Apr 16, 2021 at 19:58
  • $\begingroup$ Sounds like a whole new question, not a clarification of this answer, but wouldn't it just be a test of the interaction term? $\endgroup$
    – Glen_b
    Commented Apr 17, 2021 at 14:04
  • $\begingroup$ So, can we specifically test two different arrangements of interaction, namely: (1) A1-B1 versus A2-B1, and (2) A1-B1 versus A2-B2? BTW, my question is HERE. $\endgroup$
    – rnorouzian
    Commented Apr 17, 2021 at 15:53

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.