It is possible to include observed variables as part of the structural model. For example, to find the impact of latent variables on observed variable.


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With older programs, such as LISREL you couldn't do this - you had to create a latent with a single indicator, and no error variance. Now you just do it, for e.g. in Mplus, if F is latent and x is observed, you'd write

x on f;

In Lavaan, you'd write:

x ~ F

Also, when you have a latent variable, with indicators, the loading is equivalent to the regression. So (in Mplus):

F by x;

is exactly the same as my first statement.

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    $\begingroup$ I used the maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) approach for the determination of SEM, which was carried out in AMOS version 20. $\endgroup$
    – Hodud Omar
    Commented Dec 7, 2014 at 9:28
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    $\begingroup$ You can do it in AMOS too. Just draw an arrow from the latent to the manifest variable. (One of the [several] reasons I don't like AMOS is that I can't write the code which tells you want to do, and you can't tell me what you did. It's much easier to help people if you use any other program.) $\endgroup$ Commented Dec 8, 2014 at 16:42

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