I'm a PhD student in Physics and this summer I'd like to attend a one/two weeks summer school on data mining and machine learning. Do you have one to recommend? Thanks!
For your level, I highly recommend the Machine Learning course on Coursera taught by the reputable Andrew Ng from Stanford. It can be found here: https://www.coursera.org/course/ml
This course starts at a pretty basic level (linear regression) and works it's way up to things like clustering and anomally detection. Don't expect to be an expert after this course, but it'll certainly give you a basis to learn more and will teach you methods that are certainly useful.
The course is 2.5 months long and there's one that starts June 16th. However, you can start following the lectures and doing the homeworks whenever you'd like and at your own pace (the disadvantage of not following the course schedule is your homework will not be "graded"). If you gave it 8 hours a day you should be able to finish in 1-2 weeks.
EDIT: it's also free!