This is in multiple linear regression. Given $m, n \in \mathbb{N}$ and matrices $X \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times (n+1)} (m > n + 1), H = X(X'X)^{-1}X' \in \mathbb{R}^{m\times m}$, the hat matrix, $, I = I_m$ and $J \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times m}$, a matrix of 1's, how does one show that

$J(I-H) = 0$?

I am actually trying to show

$(I-H)(H-\frac{1}{n}J) = 0$

which reduces to $J(I-H) = 0$ by noting that $HH =H$.

Apparently, this might have something to do with $J(y - X \hat{\beta}) = 0 \ \forall y \in \mathbb{R}^{1 \times (m+1)}$ where $\hat{\beta} = (X'X)^{-1}X'y $?

Is the statement true? If so why? If not, why not, and how then to prove $J(I-H) = 0$ or $(I-H)(H-\frac{1}{n}J) = 0$? I think there's some property of MLR needed.

Is there a way to do it without statistics? Like $J(I-H) = 0$ or $(I-H)(H-\frac{1}{n}J) = 0$ from just the properties of the matrices? Must one really use some properties of MLR? What are some possible counterexamples?


The "hat" matrix is a projection matrix onto the column space of $X$, $C(X)$. For any $x \in C(X)$, $Hx=x$ (see properties of projection matrix). Therefore $JH=J$ as long as you have an intercept (column of ones in your design matrix).

EDIT to address comment:

The matrix of all ones, $J$, can be written as $$J = \begin{pmatrix} \mathbf{1}^\intercal \\ \vdots \\\mathbf{1}^\intercal\end{pmatrix}$$ where $\mathbf{1}$ is a vector of ones. Then we have $$JH = \begin{pmatrix} \mathbf{1}^\intercal H \\ \vdots \\ \mathbf{1}^\intercal H \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} \mathbf{1}^\intercal \\ \vdots \\ \mathbf{1}^\intercal\end{pmatrix} = J$$

if column of ones is in $\mathbf{X}$ then $H\mathbf{1} = \mathbf{1}$ and taking transpose of both sides we have $\mathbf{1}^\intercal H = \mathbf{1}^\intercal$ because $H$ is symmetric.

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  • $\begingroup$ There indeed is a column of ones. How exactly does it mean that JH = J? What I got so far: Column space means set of all possible linear combinations of X. It is a set of vectors. How can J be there if it is a matrix? en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Column_space#Definition $\endgroup$ – BCLC May 14 '15 at 15:28
  • $\begingroup$ I hope my edit answers your question. :) $\endgroup$ – bdeonovic May 14 '15 at 16:46
  • $\begingroup$ bdeonovic, why is it that 1TH = 1T? $\endgroup$ – BCLC May 14 '15 at 16:47
  • $\begingroup$ I had the property on projection matrices a bit wrong, its been corrected and added another edit to answer your second comment. $\endgroup$ – bdeonovic May 14 '15 at 16:58
  • $\begingroup$ Ugh, how do you know H1 = 1? $\endgroup$ – BCLC May 14 '15 at 17:16

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