I've got a worked example (in R), that I'm trying to understand further. I'm using Limma to create a linear model and I'm trying to understand what's happening step by step in the fold change calculations. I'm mostly trying to figure out what happens to calculate the coefficients. From what I can figure out, QR decomposition is used to get the coefficients, so I'm essentially looking for an explanation or a way to see step-by-step the equations being calculation, or or the source code for qr() in R to trace it myself.

Using the following Data:

expression_data <- c(1.27135202935009, 1.41816160331787, 1.2572772420417, 1.70943398046296, 1.30290218641586, 0.632660015122616, 1.73084258791384, 0.863826352944684, 0.62481665344628, 0.356064235030147, 1.31542028558644, 0.30549909383238, 0.464963176430548, 0.132181421105667, -0.284799809563931, 0.216198538884642, -0.0841133304341238, -0.00184472290008803, -0.0924271878885008, -0.340291804468472, -0.236829711453303, 0.0529690806587626, 0.16321956624511, -0.310513510587778, -0.12970035111176, -0.126398635780533, 0.152550803185228, -0.458542514769473, 0.00243517688116406, -0.0190192219685527, 0.199329876859774, 0.0493831375210439, -0.30903829000185, -0.289604319193543, -0.110019942085281, -0.220289950537685, 0.0680403723818882, -0.210977291862137, 0.253649629045288, 0.0740109953273042, 0.115109148186167, 0.187043445057404, 0.705155251555554, 0.105479342752451, 0.344672919872447, 0.303316487542805, 0.332595721664644, 0.0512213943473417, 0.440756755046719, 0.091642538588249, 0.477236022595909, 0.109140019847968, 0.685001267317616, 0.183154080053337, 0.314190891668279, -0.123285017407119, 0.603094973500324, 1.53723917249845, 0.180518835745199, 1.5520102749957, -0.339656677699664, 0.888791974821514, 0.321402618155527, 1.31133008668306, 0.287587853884556, -0.513896569786498, 1.01400498573403, -0.145552182640197, -0.0466811491949621, 1.34418631328095, -0.188666887863983, 0.920227741574566, -0.0182196762358299, 1.18398082848213, 0.0680539755381465, 0.389472802053599, 1.14920099633956, 1.35363045061024, -0.0400907708395635, 1.14405154287124, 0.365672853509181, -0.0742688460368051, 1.60927415300638, -0.0312210890874907, -0.302097025523754, 0.214897201115632, 2.029775196118, 1.46210810601113, -0.126836819148653, -0.0799005522761045, 0.958505775644153, -0.209758749029421, 0.273568395649965, 0.488150388217536, -0.230312627718208, -0.0115780974342431, 0.351708198671371, 0.11803520077305, -0.201488605868396, 0.0814169684941098, 1.32266103732873, 1.9077004570343, 1.34748531668521, 1.37847539147601, 1.85761827653095, 1.11327229058024, 1.21377936983249, 1.167867701785, 1.3119314966728, 1.01502530573911, 1.22109375841952, 1.23026951795161, 1.30638557237133, 1.02569437924906, 0.812852833149196) 

treatment <- c('A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'B', 'B', 'B', 'B', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'B', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'C', 'A', 'B', 'A', 'C', 'A', 'C', 'A', 'B', 'C', 'B', 'C', 'C', 'A', 'C', 'A', 'B', 'A', 'C', 'B', 'B', 'A', 'C', 'A', 'C', 'C', 'A', 'C', 'B', 'C', 'A', 'A', 'B', 'C', 'A', 'C', 'B', 'B', 'C', 'C', 'B', 'B', 'C', 'C', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A')

variation <- c(1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3)

...and the following model design

design               <- model.matrix(~0 + factor(treatment,
                                                 levels=unique(treatment)) +
                                          factor(variation))
colnames(design)     <- c(unique(treatment),
                          paste0("b",
                                 unique(variation)[-1]))
#expression_data consists of more than the data given. The data given is just one row from the object
fit                  <- lmFit((expression_data), design)

cont_mat             <- makeContrasts(B-A,
                                      levels=design)
fit2                 <- contrasts.fit(fit,
                                      contrasts=cont_mat)
fit2                 <- eBayes(fit2)

Gives me a fold change of -0.8709646.

Getting the coefficients can be done via:

qr.solve(design, expression_data)

Then it's a simple case of B-A to get the fold change.

Now the bit that's perplexing me is how qr.solve actually works, it calls the qr function, but I can't seem to find the source for that.

Does anyone have a good explanation of qr decomposition, or a way for me to trace exactly what's happening to derive the coefficients?

Thanks for any help!

up vote 20 down vote accepted

The idea of the QR decomposition as a procedure to get OLS estimates is already explained in the post linked by @MatthewDrury.

The source code of the function qr is written in Fortran and may be hard to follow. Here I show a minimal implementation that reproduces the main results for a model fitted by OLS. Hopefully the steps are easier to follow.

Recap: The QR procedure is used to decompose the matrix of regressor variables $X$ into an orthonormal matrix $Q$ and a non-singular upper-triangular matrix $R$. Substituting $X = QR$ in the normal equations $X'X\hat\beta = X'y$ yields:

$$ R'Q'QR\hat\beta = R'Q'y \,. $$

Premultipying by $R^{-1}$ and using the fact that $Q'Q$ is a diagonal matrix gives:

$$ R\hat\beta = Q'y \,. \tag 1 $$

The point of this result is that, since $R$ is an upper-triangular matrix, this equation is easy to solve for $\hat\beta$ by backwards substitutions.

Now, how to we get the matrices $Q$ and $R$? We can Householder transformation, Givens rotations or the Gram-Schmidt procedure.

Below I use Householder transformations. See details for example here. The code below is based on the Pascal code described in the book Pollock (1999) Chapters 7 and 8. The matrix of regressors is used to store the matrix $R$ of the QR decomposition. The dependent variable $Y$ is overwritten with the results of $Q'y$ (right-hand-side of equation (1) above). Notice also that in the last step the residual sum of squares can be obtained from this vector.

QR.regression <- function(y, X)
{
  nr <- length(y)
  nc <- NCOL(X)

  # Householder transformations
  for (j in seq_len(nc))
  {
    id <- seq.int(j, nr)
    sigma <- sum(X[id,j]^2)
    s <- sqrt(sigma)
    diag_ej <- X[j,j]
    gamma <- 1.0 / (sigma + abs(s * diag_ej))
    kappa <- if (diag_ej < 0) s else -s
    X[j,j] <- X[j,j] - kappa
    if (j < nc)
    for (k in seq.int(j+1, nc))
    {
      yPrime <- sum(X[id,j] * X[id,k]) * gamma
      X[id,k] <- X[id,k] - X[id,j] * yPrime
    }

    yPrime <- sum(X[id,j] * y[id]) * gamma
    y[id] <- y[id] - X[id,j] * yPrime

    X[j,j] <- kappa

  } # end Householder

  # residual sum of squares
  rss <- sum(y[seq.int(nc+1, nr)]^2)

  # Backsolve
  beta <- rep(NA, nc)
  for (j in seq.int(nc, 1))
  {
    beta[j] <- y[j]
    if (j < nc)
    for (i in seq.int(j+1, nc))
      beta[j] <- beta[j] - X[j,i] * beta[i]
    beta[j] <- beta[j] / X[j,j]
  }

  # set zeros in the lower triangular side of X (which stores) 
  # not really necessary, this is just to return R for illustration
  for (i in seq_len(ncol(X)))
    X[seq.int(i+1, nr),i] <- 0

  list(R=X[1:nc,1:nc], y=y, beta=beta, rss=rss)
}

We can check that the same estimates than lm are obtained.

# benchmark results
fit <- lm(expression_data ~ 0+design)
# OLS by QR decomposition
y <- expression_data
X <- design
res <- QR.regression(y, X)
res$beta
# [1]  1.43235881  0.56139421  0.07744044 -0.15611038 -0.15021796    
all.equal(res$beta, coef(fit), check.attributes=FALSE)
# [1] TRUE
all.equal(res$rss, sum(residuals(fit)^2))
# [1] TRUE

We can also get the matrix $Q$ and check that it is orthogonal:

Q <- X %*% solve(res$R)
round(crossprod(Q), 3)
#   1 2 3 4 5
# 1 1 0 0 0 0
# 2 0 1 0 0 0
# 3 0 0 1 0 0
# 4 0 0 0 1 0
# 5 0 0 0 0 1

The residuals can be obtained as y - X %*% res$beta.


References

D.S.G. Pollock (1999) A handbook of time series analysis, signal processing and dynamics, Academic Press.

  • A minor point - I believe the code in your second chunk should have QR.regression as the function call rather than QR.Householder. Other than that I can't thank you enough for such an insightful explanation. – A_Skelton73 Jul 5 '15 at 20:43
  • I renamed the function but forgot updating the call, thanks! Glad to see it was helpful. – javlacalle Jul 5 '15 at 21:20

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