# Significant p-value but odds ratio confidence interval crosses 1 in logistic regression using restricted cubic splines

I have previously posted about the data I am using in this logistic regression here - Skewed Distributions for Logistic Regression

I have built a logistic regression model and tested using the rms package. The regression model included the following variables:

Yeardecimal - Date of procedure (expressed as decimal of year) = 1994-2013
inctoCran - Time from head injury to craniotomy in minutes = 0-2880 (After 2880 minutes is defined as a separate diagnosis)
Age - Age of patient = 16.0-101.5
rcteyemi - Pupil reactivity = NA / Both unreactive = O, 1 reactive = 1, both reactive = 2
GCS - Glasgow Coma Scale = 3-15
ISS - Injury Severity Score = 16-75
Other - dummy for presence (1) or absence (0) of other trauma
SDH Severity - Score for severity of subdural haematoma (4 or 5)
Mechanism - Mechanism of injury = Fall <2m, Fall >2m, Shooting/stabbing, RTC (Road Traffic Collision), Other
neuroFirst2 - Location of first admission (Neurosurgical Unit) = NSU vs. Non-NSU
Sex - Gender of patient = Male or Female
Weekday - Day of the week of injury


Multiple imputation was performed due to missingness in the data (GCS 14% missing, rcteyemi 46% missing).

The results of the final model are as follows:

fit.mult.impute(formula = Survive ~ rcs(Yeardecimal, 4) + rcs(inctoCran) +
rcs(Age) + rcteyemi + rcs(GCS, 4) + rcs(ISS, 3) + Other +
SDH.Severity * Other + rcs(ISS, 3) * SDH.Severity + Mechanism +
neuroFirst2 + Sex + Weekday, fitter = lrm, xtrans = a, data = ASDH_Paper1.1)

Model Likelihood     Discrimination    Rank Discrim.
Ratio Test            Indexes          Indexes
Obs          2498    LR chi2     760.36    R2       0.373    C       0.822
0            737    d.f.            35    g        1.643    Dxy     0.644
1           1761    Pr(> chi2) <0.0001    gr       5.173    gamma   0.645
max |deriv| 1e-04                          gp       0.269    tau-a   0.268
Brier    0.146

Coef      S.E.    Wald Z Pr(>|Z|)
Intercept                     -127.7493 75.1796 -1.70  0.0893
Yeardecimal                      0.0654  0.0376  1.74  0.0815
Yeardecimal'                    -0.0340  0.0557 -0.61  0.5419
Yeardecimal''                    0.4371  0.7780  0.56  0.5743
inctoCran                        0.0006  0.0020  0.31  0.7585
inctoCran'                      -0.0652  0.1590 -0.41  0.6818
inctoCran''                      0.1507  0.3393  0.44  0.6570
inctoCran'''                    -0.0981  0.2003 -0.49  0.6243
Age                             -0.0158  0.0229 -0.69  0.4892
Age'                             0.0264  0.1250  0.21  0.8328
Age''                           -0.2912  0.4308 -0.68  0.4991
Age'''                           0.6521  0.5444  1.20  0.2310
rcteyemi=1                       0.7157  0.2121  3.37  0.0007
rcteyemi=2                       2.4627  0.2123 11.60  <0.0001
GCS                              0.0732  0.0809  0.90  0.3655
GCS'                             0.0462  0.3506  0.13  0.8952
GCS''                           -0.1736  0.7046 -0.25  0.8054
ISS                             -0.1733  0.0331 -5.24  <0.0001
ISS'                             0.1127  0.0331  3.41  0.0007
Other=1                          0.6694  0.2461  2.72  0.0065
SDH.Severity=5                  -1.1855  5.3867 -0.22  0.8258
Mechanism=Fall > 2m              0.0483  0.1588  0.30  0.7612
Mechanism=Other                  0.5464  0.1922  2.84  0.0045
Mechanism=RTC                    0.1914  0.1744  1.10  0.2726
Mechanism=Shooting / Stabbing    1.1738  1.1886  0.99  0.3234
neuroFirst2=NSU                 -0.2079  0.1274 -1.63  0.1027
Sex=Male                        -0.2042  0.1320 -1.55  0.1219
Weekday=Monday                   0.0846  0.2031  0.42  0.6770
Weekday=Saturday                 0.1279  0.1917  0.67  0.5048
Weekday=Sunday                   0.2215  0.1928  1.15  0.2506
Weekday=Thursday                 0.2590  0.2147  1.21  0.2276
Weekday=Tuesday                  0.0696  0.2159  0.32  0.7472
Weekday=Wednesday               -0.1883  0.2113 -0.89  0.3727
Other=1 * SDH.Severity=5        -0.8443  0.4738 -1.78  0.0748
ISS * SDH.Severity=5             0.0533  0.2256  0.24  0.8131
ISS' * SDH.Severity=5           -0.0129  0.1930 -0.07  0.9465


p-values for each variable were identified using anova():

               Wald Statistics          Response: Survive

Factor                                              Chi-Square d.f. P
Yeardecimal                                          16.60      3   0.0009
Nonlinear                                            0.37      2   0.8297
inctoCran                                             3.31      4   0.5075
Nonlinear                                            0.38      3   0.9453
Age                                                  66.75      4   <.0001
Nonlinear                                            4.55      3   0.2077
rcteyemi                                            153.15      2   <.0001
GCS                                                  11.68      3   0.0086
Nonlinear                                            1.06      2   0.5883
ISS  (Factor+Higher Order Factors)                   40.22      4   <.0001
All Interactions                                     3.25      2   0.1971
Nonlinear (Factor+Higher Order Factors)             11.80      2   0.0027
Other  (Factor+Higher Order Factors)                  7.76      2   0.0206
All Interactions                                     3.18      1   0.0748
SDH.Severity  (Factor+Higher Order Factors)           6.54      4   0.1623
All Interactions                                     6.48      3   0.0906
Mechanism                                             9.24      4   0.0555
neuroFirst2                                           2.66      1   0.1027
Sex                                                   2.39      1   0.1219
Weekday                                               6.08      6   0.4140
Other * SDH.Severity  (Factor+Higher Order Factors)   3.18      1   0.0748
ISS * SDH.Severity  (Factor+Higher Order Factors)     3.25      2   0.1971
Nonlinear                                            0.00      1   0.9465
Nonlinear Interaction : f(A,B) vs. AB                0.00      1   0.9465
TOTAL NONLINEAR                                      17.38     12   0.1357
TOTAL INTERACTION                                     6.48      3   0.0906
TOTAL NONLINEAR + INTERACTION                        30.18     14   0.0072
TOTAL                                               404.15     35   <.0001


My question relates to the result of the summary function relative to the above anova results. summary() produces the following output:

    Effects              Response : Survive

Factor                                    Low      High     Diff.   Effect S.E. Lower 0.95 Upper 0.95
Yeardecimal                               2004.900 2012.600   7.755  0.26  0.17 -0.08       0.60
Odds Ratio                               2004.900 2012.600   7.755  1.30    NA  0.93       1.83
inctoCran                                  235.000  778.500 543.500  0.05  0.18 -0.30       0.39
Odds Ratio                                235.000  778.500 543.500  1.05    NA  0.74       1.48
Age                                         33.625   64.775  31.150 -1.05  0.19 -1.41      -0.68
Odds Ratio                                 33.625   64.775  31.150  0.35    NA  0.24       0.51
GCS                                          4.000   13.000   9.000  0.57  0.19  0.19       0.94
Odds Ratio                                  4.000   13.000   9.000  1.76    NA  1.22       2.56
ISS                                         25.000   29.000   4.000 -0.20  0.36 -0.91       0.52
Odds Ratio                                 25.000   29.000   4.000  0.82    NA  0.40       1.67
rcteyemi - 0:2                               3.000    1.000      NA -2.46  0.21 -2.88      -2.05
Odds Ratio                                  3.000    1.000      NA  0.09    NA  0.06       0.13
rcteyemi - 1:2                               3.000    2.000      NA -1.75  0.19 -2.12      -1.37
Odds Ratio                                  3.000    2.000      NA  0.17    NA  0.12       0.25
Other - 1:0                                  1.000    2.000      NA -0.17  0.42 -1.00       0.65
Odds Ratio                                  1.000    2.000      NA  0.84    NA  0.37       1.92
SDH.Severity - 4:5                           2.000    1.000      NA -0.13  0.17 -0.47       0.21
Odds Ratio                                  2.000    1.000      NA  0.88    NA  0.63       1.23
Mechanism - Fall > 2m:Fall < 2m              1.000    2.000      NA  0.05  0.16 -0.26       0.36
Odds Ratio                                  1.000    2.000      NA  1.05    NA  0.77       1.43
Mechanism - Other:Fall < 2m                  1.000    3.000      NA  0.55  0.19  0.17       0.92
Odds Ratio                                  1.000    3.000      NA  1.73    NA  1.19       2.52
Mechanism - RTC:Fall < 2m                    1.000    4.000      NA  0.19  0.17 -0.15       0.53
Odds Ratio                                  1.000    4.000      NA  1.21    NA  0.86       1.70
Mechanism - Shooting / Stabbing:Fall < 2m    1.000    5.000      NA  1.17  1.19 -1.16       3.50
Odds Ratio                                  1.000    5.000      NA  3.23    NA  0.31      33.23
neuroFirst2 - NSU:Non-NSU                    1.000    2.000      NA -0.21  0.13 -0.46       0.04
Odds Ratio                                  1.000    2.000      NA  0.81    NA  0.63       1.04
Sex - Female:Male                            2.000    1.000      NA  0.20  0.13 -0.05       0.46
Odds Ratio                                  2.000    1.000      NA  1.23    NA  0.95       1.59
Weekday - Friday:Sunday                      4.000    1.000      NA -0.22  0.19 -0.60       0.16
Odds Ratio                                  4.000    1.000      NA  0.80    NA  0.55       1.17
Weekday - Monday:Sunday                      4.000    2.000      NA -0.14  0.20 -0.53       0.25
Odds Ratio                                  4.000    2.000      NA  0.87    NA  0.59       1.29
Weekday - Saturday:Sunday                    4.000    3.000      NA -0.09  0.18 -0.46       0.27
Odds Ratio                                  4.000    3.000      NA  0.91    NA  0.63       1.31
Weekday - Thursday:Sunday                    4.000    5.000      NA  0.04  0.22 -0.38       0.46
Odds Ratio                                  4.000    5.000      NA  1.04    NA  0.68       1.58
Weekday - Tuesday:Sunday                     4.000    6.000      NA -0.15  0.21 -0.56       0.26
Odds Ratio                                  4.000    6.000      NA  0.86    NA  0.57       1.29
Weekday - Wednesday:Sunday                   4.000    7.000      NA -0.41  0.20 -0.81      -0.01
Odds Ratio                                  4.000    7.000      NA  0.66    NA  0.45       0.99


I am not sure exactly why I have significant p-values but an odds ratio whose confidence interval traps 1 for the following variables?

1. Yeardecimal - p-value = 0.0009, OR = 1.30 (95% CI 0.93-1.83)
2. ISS - p-value < 0.0001, OR = 0.82 (95% CI 0.40-1.67)
3. Other - p-value = 0.0206, OR = 0.84 (95% CI 0.37-1.92)


I understand that the OR is calculated for continuous variables by comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile. Non-linear restricted cubic spline modelling of Year and ISS may explain the discordance between OR and p-value but what about the binary variable Other? How could I explain this when writing up the results?

Update

Below is a trajectory using plot(Predict(rcs.ASDH,Yeardecimal)) in rms:

In preparing the manuscript for publication, I have converted the log odds to survival, and used ggplot(Predict(...)) to produce the following trend over time:

Should I remove the OR data from the results table? I am just concerned that reviewers and readers may be confused by the (to a typical medical professional) conflicting statistical results.

Update

Please see below marginal effects plot using the following code:

an<-anova(rcs.ASDH)
ggplot(Predict(rcs.ASDH,name="Yeardecimal"), anova=an, pval=TRUE)


• The p-value of 0.02 for Other is for the 2-df test that the coefficients of (Other=1) and (Other=1 * SDH.Severity=5) are both zero. Jul 9, 2015 at 10:37

Nice work Dan. The inclusion of 1.0 in an odds ratio's confidence interval will be entirely consistent with the P-value from anova() if and only if the variable is linear or if it is categorical and the reference cell happened to be consistent with how summary sets up the contrasts. This is why I prefer anova for overall inference, accompanied by partial effect plots from ggplot(Predict(...)).

When a predictor's relationship is non-monotonic, e.g. U-shaped, the two approaches will be most inconsistent.

Note that there is one dissatisfying aspect of fit.mult.impute: the model summary statistics such as $D_{xy}$ are only for the last imputed dataset. We need a better way to compute overall summary statistics, such as computing them on an "average model" or averaging the summary statistics over completed datasets.

I would show ORs and CLs but have a footnote stating the reason they are not necessarily consistent with the general tests of association. And you can add the association test statistics on the partial effect plots.

• I have updated the post with some plots I have prepared for the manuscript. Is this what you are referring to by "partial effect plots"? Jul 9, 2015 at 14:13
• Yes and I added to my answer. You can show the partial effects of all variables (moving one at a time) in one graph with the ggplot function in rms. Jul 9, 2015 at 14:47
• Is there any resource, package or guidance for computing an "average model" or averaging the summary statistics over the completed datasets for reporting confidence intervals? Jul 14, 2015 at 11:49
• My course notes at biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/rms and my book (2nd edition out August 2015) covers this as well as van Buuren's wonderful book on multiple imputation. fit.mult.impute handles averaging the model. We need more papers about averaging summary stats. Jul 14, 2015 at 12:54
• Thank you, I'll take a look and will add any additional computation to this post to share with others. Jul 14, 2015 at 13:46