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My data contains 3 treatments: A (n = 10), B (n = 15) and C (n = 5). I run an ANOVA test and reject the null hypothesis, so I perform a Tukey-HSD post-hoc test and find that there is a significant difference between groups A and B.

Later, I added a new treatment group: D (n = 100). I run another ANOVA test and reject the null; then I follow up with Tukey-HSD like I did before. However, this time there is no significant difference between groups A and B. Why is this? I thought since Tukey-HSD is a pairwise comparison, then it doesn't matter if I added a new treatment group?

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P-values reported by Tukey-HSD test control for the probability of one false positive in ALL pairwise comparisons performed. Thus, the larger the number of groups, the larger the adjusted p-value.

In other words, the more treatment groups you have, the larger the probability of a single false positive since you are now performing more tests.

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