# Evaluating logistic regression and interpretation of Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness of Fit

As we all know, there are 2 methods to evaluate the logistic regression model and they are testing very different things

1. Predictive power:

Get a statistic that measures how well you can predict the dependent variable based on the independent variables. The well-known Pseudo R^2 are McFadden (1974) and Cox and Snell (1989).

2. Goodness-of-fit statistics

The test is telling whether you could do even better by making the model more complicated, which is actually testing whether there are any non-linearities or interactions that you have missed.

I implemented both tests on my model, which added quadratic and interaction

>summary(spec_q2)

Call:
glm(formula = result ~ Top + Right + Left + Bottom + I(Top^2) +
I(Left^2) + I(Bottom^2) + Top:Right + Top:Bottom + Right:Left,
family = binomial())

Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error z value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept)  0.955431   8.838584   0.108   0.9139
Top          0.311891   0.189793   1.643   0.1003
Right       -1.015460   0.502736  -2.020   0.0434 *
Left        -0.962143   0.431534  -2.230   0.0258 *
Bottom       0.198631   0.157242   1.263   0.2065
I(Top^2)    -0.003213   0.002114  -1.520   0.1285
I(Left^2)   -0.054258   0.008768  -6.188 6.09e-10 ***
I(Bottom^2)  0.003725   0.001782   2.091   0.0366 *
Top:Right    0.012290   0.007540   1.630   0.1031
Top:Bottom   0.004536   0.002880   1.575   0.1153
Right:Left  -0.044283   0.015983  -2.771   0.0056 **
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1
(Dispersion parameter for binomial family taken to be 1)
Null deviance: 3350.3  on 2799  degrees of freedom
Residual deviance: 1984.6  on 2789  degrees of freedom
AIC: 2006.6

and the predicted power is as below, the MaFadden is 0.4004, and the value between 0.2~0.4 should be taken to present very good fit of the model(Louviere et al (2000), Domenich and McFadden (1975)) :

> PseudoR2(spec_q2)
0.4076315        0.4004680        0.3859918        0.5531859        0.6144487        0.4616466        0.8489286        0.4712500
AIC    Corrected.AIC
2006.6179010     2006.7125925

and the goodness-of-fit statistics:

> hoslem.test(result,phat,g=8)

Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fit (GOF) test

data:  result, phat
X-squared = 2800, df = 6, p-value < 2.2e-16

As my understanding, GOF is actually testing the following null and alternative hypothesis:

H0: The models does not need interaction and non-linearity
H1: The models needs interaction and non-linearity

Since my models added interaction, non-linearity already and the p-value shows H0 should be rejected, so I came to the conclusion that my model needs interaction, non-linearity indeed. Hope my interpretation is correct and thanks for any advise in advance, thanks.

• – user83346
Aug 31, 2015 at 4:24
• Better to look at the underlying table than the p-value for the HL test. And also at plots of the residuals from your model. This will show where the problem is. Apr 15, 2016 at 14:16
• Hosmer-Lemeshow is considered obsolete: stats.stackexchange.com/questions/273966/… May 14, 2020 at 12:09

There are several issues to address.

• $R^2$ measures by themselves never measure goodness of fit; they measure mainly predictive discrimination. Goodness of fit only comes from comparing $R^2$ with the $R^2$ from a richer model
• The Hosmer-Lemeshow test is for overall calibration error, not for any particular lack of fit such as quadratic effects. It does not properly take overfitting into account, is arbitrary to choice of bins and method of computing quantiles, and often has power that is too low.
• For these reasons the Hosmer-Lemeshow test is no longer recommended. Hosmer et al have a better one d.f. omnibus test of fit, implemented in the R rms package residuals.lrm function.
• For your case goodness of fit can be assessed by jointly testing (in a "chunk" test) the contribution of all the square and interaction terms.
• But I recommend specifying the model to make it more likely to fit up front (especially with regard to relaxing linearity assumptions using regression splines) and using the bootstrap to estimate overfitting and to get an overfitting-corrected high-resolution smooth calibration curve to check absolute accuracy. These are done using the R rms package.

On the last point, I prefer the philosophy that models be flexible (as limited by the sample size, anyway) and that we concentrate more on "fit" than "lack of fit".

• Just one thing: most $R^2$ measures are comparing the fitted model to a "perfect model" which gets the prediction right for each record, without making a df/overfitting adjustment. +1 from me. Apr 15, 2016 at 14:12
• Yes, it's just that we never hope to be perfect so I would not call $1 - R^{2}$ lack of fit. Apr 15, 2016 at 15:44
• @FrankHarrell To your last point ("get an overfitting-corrected high-resolution smooth calibration curve"): does that imply that you prefer visual assessment over numerical performance evaluation? (I am currently looking for a way to numerically compare calibration performance between groups of different sample sizes.) Nov 11, 2022 at 11:42
• The whole curve is the best statistic but there are various summaries, my favorite being the 0.9 quantile of absolute differences across the curve. This paper is a key reference for summary measures: pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35039069 Nov 11, 2022 at 12:25

From Wikipedia:

The test assesses whether or not the observed event rates match expected event rates in subgroups of the model population. The Hosmer–Lemeshow test specifically identifies subgroups as the deciles of fitted risk values. Models for which expected and observed event rates in subgroups are similar are called well calibrated.

Its meaning: after building model scoring your model's y, you want to cross check whether it is distributed across 10 deciles similar to actual event rates.

So hypotheses will be

• $H_0$: Actual and predicted event rates are similar across 10 deciles
• $H_1$: they are mot same

Hence if p-value is less than .05, they are not well distributed and you need to refine your model.