$N$ is the population size and $n$ is the sample size. The question asks why the population variance is the mean squared deviation from the mean rather than $(N-1)/N = 1-(1/N)$ times it. For that matter, why stop there? Why not multiply the mean squared deviation by $1-2/N$, or $1-17/N$, or $\exp(-1/N)$, for instance?
There actually is a good reason not to. Any of these figures I just mentioned would serve just fine as a way to quantify a "typical spread" within the population. However, without prior knowledge of the population size, it would be impossible to use a random sample to find an unbiased estimator of such a figure. We know that the sample variance, which multiplies the mean squared deviation from the sample mean by $(n-1)/n$, is an unbiased estimator of the usual population variance when sampling with replacement. (There is no problem with making this correction, because we know $n$!) The sample variance would therefore be a biased estimator of any multiple of the population variance where that multiple, such as $1-1/N$, is not exactly known beforehand.
This problem of some unknown amount of bias would propagate to all statistical tests that use the sample variance, including t-tests and F-tests. In effect, dividing by anything other than $N$ in the population variance formula would require us to change all statistical tabulations of t-statistics and F-statistics (and many other tables as well), but the adjustment would depend on the population size. Nobody wants to have to make tables for every possible $N$! Especially when it's not necessary.
As a practical matter, when $N$ is small enough that using $N-1$ instead of $N$ in formulas makes a difference, you usually do know the population size (or can guess it accurately) and you would likely resort to much more substantial small-population corrections when working with random samples (without replacement) from the population. In all other cases, who cares? The difference doesn't matter. For these reasons, guided by pedagogical considerations (namely, of focusing on details that matter and glossing over details that don't), some excellent introductory statistics texts don't even bother to teach the difference: they simply provide a single variance formula (divide by $N$ or $n$ as the case may be).