There's a lot about collinearity with respect to continuous predictors but not so much that I can find on categorical predictors. I have data of this type illustrated below.
The first factor is a genetic variable (allele count), the second factor is a disease category. Clearly the genes precede the disease and are a factor in showing symptoms that lead to a diagnosis. However, a regular analysis using type II or III sums of squares, as would be commonly done in psych with SPSS, misses the effect. A type I sums of squares analysis picks it up, when the appropriate order is entered because it is order dependent. Further, there are likely to be extra components to the disease process which are not related to the gene that are not well identified with type II or III, see anova(lm1) below vs lm2 or Anova.
set.seed(69) iv1 <- sample(c(0,1,2), 150, replace=T) iv2 <- round(iv1 + rnorm(150, 0, 1), 0) iv2 <- ifelse(iv2<0, 0, iv2) iv2 <- ifelse(iv2>2, 2, iv2) dv <- iv2 + rnorm(150, 0, 2) iv2 <- factor(iv2, labels=c("a", "b", "c")) df1 <- data.frame(dv, iv1, iv2) library(car) chisq.test(table(iv1, iv2)) # quick gene & disease relations lm1 <- lm(dv~iv1*iv2, df1); lm2 <- lm(dv~iv2*iv1, df1) anova(lm1); anova(lm2) Anova(lm1, type="II"); Anova(lm2, type="II")
- lm1 with type I SS to me seems the appropriate way to analyse the data given the background theory. Is my assumption correct?
- I'm used to explicitly manipulated orthogonal designs, where these problems don't usually pop up. Is it difficult to convince reviewers that this is the best process (assuming point 1 is correct) in the context of an SPSS centric field?
- And what to report in the stats section? Any extra analysis, or comments that should go in?