# What is the meaning of super script 2 subscript 2 within the context of norms?

I am new to optimization. I keep seeing equations that have a superscript 2 and a subscript 2 on the right-hand side of a norm. For instance, here is the least squares equation

min $||Ax-b||^2_2$

I think I understand the superscript 2: it means to square the value of the norm. But what is the subscript 2? How should I read these equations?

• $||\theta||_p$ is the $\ell_p$-norm of $\theta$. Let's say $\theta$ is $d$-dimensional, then $||\theta||_p = \left(\sum_{i=1}^d |\theta_i|^p\right)^\frac{1}{p}$. – Sobi Dec 15 '15 at 17:21
• Single vertical bars are used for absolute value (magnitude): $|\theta|$ – Scortchi Dec 15 '15 at 17:28
• Thanks!...but what is the superscript 2 for?...the subsript is for the pth norm....the superscript is for? – mathopt Dec 15 '15 at 18:37
• @user1467929: Squaring - if it's anything else they'd surely have said. – Scortchi Dec 15 '15 at 19:48

You are right about the superscript. The subscript $||.||_p$ specifies the $p$-norm.

Therefore:

$$||x_i||_p=(\sum_i|x_i|^p)^{1/p}$$

And:

$$||x_i||_p^p=\sum_i|x_i|^p$$

• ah. And there are conventions for the meanings of the subscripts I see. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norm_(mathematics)#p-norm. So like 1 = taxicab norm, 2=euclid norm etc – bernie2436 Nov 13 '15 at 14:04
• @bernie2436: These are special cases of the general definition given in the answer above (except maybe the sup-norm with $p = \infty$) – Michael M Nov 13 '15 at 14:55

$\|x\|_2$ is the Euclidean norm of the vector $x$; $\|x\|_2^2$ is the squared Euclidean norm of $x$. Note that as the Euclidean norm is probably the mostly commonly used norm people routinely abbreviated by $\|x\|$. By definition when assuming a Euclidean vector space: $\|x\|_2 := \sqrt{x_1^2 + x_2^2 + \dots + x_n^2}$.

As mentioned in the comments, the subscript $p$ refers to the degree of the norm. Other commonly used norms are for $p = 0$, $p = 1$ and $p = \infty$. For $p=0$ one gets the number of non-zero elements in $x$, for $p=1$ (ie. $\|x\|_1$) one gets the Manhattan norm and for $p = \infty$ one gets the maximum absolute value from the elements in $x$. Both $p = 0$ and $p = 1$ are popular in sparse/compressed application settings where one wants to "urge" some coefficient(s) to be zero.