I am trying to predict sales values using time series approach. Below graph is the sales for a store over a period of 942 days (sales will be 0 when the store is closed and are not plotted in first 2 graphs for sake for clarity in graph):

Complete time series

Stacking yearly sales give us a graph like below:

Sales per year stacked over each other

It looked like it may be worth investing in time series, so I tried drawing the acf and pacf graphs which are shown below:

ACF plot


The strong auto correlation in the curve suggest the presence of time series. So I applied, auto.arima() function from r to just look at how it performs (salesModel <- auto.arima(saleDataSeries)). Below is the residuals plot from arima. I tested the prediction on Kaggle Leaderboard and the approach did not perform that well(competition is over now).


Model Parameters:

Series: saleDataSeries 

          ar1      ar2      ar3      ar4      ar5      ma1     ma2     ma3
      -0.0885  -0.1938  -0.5965  -0.3084  -0.3058  -0.8985  0.0040  0.7063
s.e.   0.1036   0.0634   0.0451   0.0329   0.0690   0.1202  0.0704  0.0909
s.e.   0.0296

sigma^2 estimated as 4621003:  log likelihood=-8555.57
AIC=17115.2   AICc=17115.43   BIC=17163.67

Currently I am also looking at multiple seasonality using tbats, but I believe that there can be certain modifications that can be made to simple ARIMA model as the ACF/PACF graph still have some spikes in the residual component. I am unsure why this is happening and any insights would be helpful


1 Answer 1


ARIMA modelling (by itself) is of little use with your kind of data . See my response to Time series analysis to quantify trend when seasonal amplitude is decreasing as a guide to what can be done. Note that when I answered the post I was unaware that it was an economic series. I specifically disabled the identification of the optimum lead and lag effects around each holiday . I also disabled the identification of particular days in the month and particular weeks in the month that might be of interest. I also disabled long-weekend effects, Monday after a Friday holiday effect, Friday before a Monday Holiday effect, month-end effects etc. as I had no idea that it was economic data. If I had enabled these economically oriented remedies , the results would have been even more amazing. If you wish you can post your data and I will demonstrate that for you.

By the way my "eye" tells me that you have a level shift not a trend but only good exploratory analysis can confirm that.

  • $\begingroup$ The data is publicly available at kaggle.com/c/rossmann-store-sales/data (one would need to sign up though). The train.csv has all the data and I had grouped the data by store and analysing for each store. The data I have posted is for store 6. Let me know if you can't access it. $\endgroup$ Dec 15, 2015 at 19:48
  • $\begingroup$ Also could you explain, intuitively what assumptions in ARIMA fails one this data? $\endgroup$ Dec 15, 2015 at 20:11
  • $\begingroup$ Essentially ARIMA is all about memory i.e. leaning on prior values explicitely. In terms of retail daily data one needs to incorporate fixed effects like day-of-the-week , month-of-the-year etc .... Adding level shifts and determinstic trends (like the one you assumed) should be done when needed not by assumption. Combining these effects with ARIMA can often ( read:nearly always) lead to a powerful/efficient model with or without user-specified predictors like weather/price/promotion/#of sales clerks etc. This class of model is called a Transfer Function or a Dynamic Regression. $\endgroup$
    – IrishStat
    Dec 15, 2015 at 20:41
  • $\begingroup$ LIke all models assumptions regarding stability of coefficients and constancy of error variance along with an error series free of information are important to verify. $\endgroup$
    – IrishStat
    Dec 15, 2015 at 20:43
  • $\begingroup$ If you wish to form the data as an excel file and email it to me I will be glad to look at it. $\endgroup$
    – IrishStat
    Dec 15, 2015 at 21:00

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