In my analysis I compare 3 treatment groups with a pre- and posttest (emotionality scores 0 - 100), so I want to use the repeated measures. Unfortunately, the pretest scores differ significantly amoungst groups which makes me think that simply running the test would not be valid. When I transfer the scores to relative ones, I get uninterpretable data due to the method of measurement (0 = not emotional, 100 = very emotional): a baseline score of 40 and postscore of 80 should not be interpreted as equal to a baseline score of 2 and a postscore of 4.

Any ideas on how to tackle this problem?

  • $\begingroup$ Was this a randomized experiment? If no, e.g. stratifying the analysis by propensity score may be an option. $\endgroup$
    – Björn
    Commented Jan 13, 2016 at 12:27
  • $\begingroup$ It was a randomized experiment indeed. $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 13, 2016 at 12:45

1 Answer 1


Probably the best method is a multilevel model, with person as a random effect and a random intercept. While ordinary regression has this model:

$Y = X \beta + \epsilon $

a multilevel model is:

$Y = X \beta + Z \gamma + \epsilon$

These models have been extensively discussed here and in many other places.

  • $\begingroup$ Thank you for your input. With multilevel model I assume you mean that I should use a mixed factor analysis? Because that was what I meant by repeated measures, I use SPSS and add Condition as Between-Subjects Factor, my bad. Could you perhaps elaborate a bit more as in how to run the analysis? I'm sorry to ask but am quite new to statistics. $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 13, 2016 at 11:26
  • $\begingroup$ I have no idea what a mixed factor analysis is and I don't use SPSS. But I will elaborate in my answer. $\endgroup$
    – Peter Flom
    Commented Jan 13, 2016 at 12:20

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