# Within the context of a document term matrix, what exactly are x and y axis in kmeans clustering?

I'm reading up on kmeans and following a blog post to do some text analysis.

I watched a helpful video by Andrew Ng fro Coursera which really helped my understanding of what is going on. Here is a screen shot from the video: So far kmeans makes sense, start with K cluster centroids, assign each point to a cluster based on distance (Euclidean?), recalculate mean, repeat.

But I'm also following this blog post on text analysis in R. Following the article I make a document term matrix.

Context is online survey results. Let's say there are e.g. 10k survey results and a total of 15k "tokens", so a dtm of 10k*15k.

Further down the article we are shown an example of kmeans clustering on the dtm:

library(fpc)
d <- dist(t(dtmss), method="euclidian")
kfit <- kmeans(d, 2)
clusplot(as.matrix(d), kfit\$cluster, color=T, shade=T, labels=2, lines=0)


And it works.

But I'm trying to understand how. An example in kmeans clustering I found online was weight and height on the x,y axis for determining how to split a population for clothing sizes of small, medium and large. That makes sense.

But in the context of a DTM, what would be on the x and y axis in the screen shot above? It's just not clicking.

• kmeans should be run on the data matrix, not on the distance matrix! I don't think that is a very good blog post. – Has QUIT--Anony-Mousse Jun 26 '16 at 8:21
• @Anony-Mousse I'm copying from here: rstudio-pubs-static.s3.amazonaws.com/… – Doug Fir Jun 26 '16 at 8:25
• Blog posts sometimes hack together something without understanding what is does, unfortunately. In particular, this approach increases the complexity form O(n) to O(n^2) both in time and memory. – Has QUIT--Anony-Mousse Jun 26 '16 at 8:26
• @Anony-Mousse OK... thanks for the feedback. So hold my hand here. I should change kfit <- kmeans(d, 2) to what exactly? – Doug Fir Jun 26 '16 at 8:30
• when you say "on the data matrix" you mean the dtm yes? – Doug Fir Jun 26 '16 at 8:41

The article did not cluster on the DTM, but on the distance matrix as returned by dist. The function dist computes the euclidean distance between vectors, and kmeans uses this measure to cluster on. Think of each document as an observation and each unique term you have as a dimension. kmeans is comparing the distance between the high-dimensional vectors that represent the columns of the DTM and clustering vectors that are similar with one another based on the distance metric.

To visualize what dist does, imagine a 3 dimensional box. dist could be used to measure the straight-line distance from, say, the front, bottom, left corner to the back, top, right corner (see image). Even if the box is a perfect cube, this distance is not equal to the length of one of the sides, the same way that the diagonal of a square (green line of the bottom) is not the same length as the sides of the square. Now imagine going up into 4, 5, ... , N dimensions. The euclidean distance formula (given in the image for 2 and 3 dimensions) can be extended to give the distance between two vectors in any number of dimensions.

For an example using words, think of "the quick brown fox" as a vector with values of 1 for "the", "quick", "brown", and fox". "The lazy dog" is another vector with values of 1 for "the", "lazy", and "dog", but 0's for "quick", "brown" and "fox".

         the quick brown fox lazy dog
words.1   1     1     1   1    0   0
words.2   1     0     0   0    1   1

dist(words)

words.1
words.2 2.236068


dist gives the length of the line that would connect the vectors words.1 and words.2 in this 6 dimensional space. If we had multiple vectors in this space, dist would return a matrix (technically my example returned a 1 x 1 matrix) of the distance between each vector and every other vector in the space, similar to what a covariance matrix does. Vectors that are more similar can be thought of as "closer together" than vectors that are different. We can go back to the cube example, but still with words, now:

     front back top bottom left right
V1     1    0   0      1    1     0
V2     0    1   1      0    0     1
V3     1    0   0      1    0     1


Just like in the picture above, the front, bottom, left vector (V1) is as far away (or as different) as possible than the back, top, right vector (V2). We expect that V1 and V2 will be the furthest from each other, and since V1 and V3 have 2 words ("front" and "bottom") in common, we expect the V1 to V3 distance to be less.

dist(a)
V1       V2
V2 2.449490
V3 1.414214 2.000000


We were correct. The V1 to V2 distance is 2.44, which is greater than the V1 to V3 distance (1.141) and V2 distance to V3 distance (2).

This matrix of distances is what kmeans is using to cluster.

• Thanks for taking the time to answer. "The function dist computed the euclidean distance between vectors". At the point d is created d <- dist(t(dtmss), method="euclidian"), what is the vector(s) at this point in time? I looked at head(d) str(d) and it's a class object. The first value in there on my actual data is 68.19091 and the label is "someword". What does that mean? What is 68.19091 in this context? My cognitive abilities are just not sharp enough – Doug Fir Jun 24 '16 at 0:36
• I edited my answer. Hopefully that helps. – Bryan Goggin Jun 24 '16 at 1:49
• Thanks, this is very helpful. A small follow up, if you will. In the first matrix you showed distance between V1 and V2 dist(words) as 2.23. Looking at the distance formula at the top of the answer, how did that come to be? I tried √4 ( which is 2) minus √3 (which is 1.73) = 0.27. √4 and 3 because the formula √x1 +xn. How would one calculate the 2.23 distance? Again, really grateful for your time in explaining this so far – Doug Fir Jun 24 '16 at 2:17
• In the first example (the quick brown fox, etc) there are 6 possible dimensions. However, for the dimension "the" both vectors have the value of 1. So the formula would be the square root of (1-1)^2 ("the") + (1-0)^2 ("quick")+ ... +(0-1)^2 ("dog") which is sqrt(0+1+1+1+1+1) = sqrt(5) = 2.236068. – Bryan Goggin Jun 24 '16 at 2:26
• Can't underline enough how helpful this has been. I get it now - thank you so much. You're last comment above really nails where I was getting confused – Doug Fir Jun 24 '16 at 3:29