# Logistic regression and different Independent variable classes - what to do?

I'm trying to run a logistic regression in R to determine what independent variables may determine if a sea turtle becomes entangled in fishing net or not. My independent variables vary significantly from each other in both scale and class e.g. Mesh size (7mm-1500mm), Twine diameter(0.33-4mm) Colour (red,blue green etc.) Construction (Multi or Mono). Must I first convert all independent variables to a similar scale to run a glm command. If so how do I standardise factors such as Colour and Construction? Also is it necessary to produce a testing dataset and a training data set as I see some people do this and others incorporate the entire model in the glm command ?