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If the data is not separable, we can minimize

$J = \frac{1}{2}\|w\|^2 + C\sum l_{0/1}(y_i (w^T x_i + b) - 1)$

here,

$l_{0/1}(z)= \begin{cases} 1,& \text{if } z\lt 0\\ 0,& \text{otherwise} \end{cases} $

hinge loss from wiki In this plot, the green curve the $l_{0/1}$ loss and the blue one is the hinge loss

$l_{hinge}(z) = max(0, 1-z).$

We substitute $l_{0/1}$ loss with $l_{hinge}$ loss

$z = y_i (w^T x_i + b) - 1$

so

$1-z = 2 - y_i (w^T x_i + b).$

Therefore,

$J = \frac{1}{2}\|w\|^2 + C\sum max(0, 2 - y_i (w^T x_i + b))$

but the book says:

$J = \frac{1}{2}\|w\|^2 + C\sum max(0, 1 - y_i (w^T x_i + b))$

Why is "2" changed to "1"?

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The number of miss classified points is

$l_{0/1}(y_i(w^T x_i + b))$

not

$l_{0/1}(y_i(w^T x_i + b)-1)$ enter image description here Note that the separate plane is in the middle($w^T x - b = 0$), not the "support vector plane"

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