# Linear Discriminant Analysis biplot [closed]

I am not sure about plotting a biplot for LDA. Suppose I have a 3 feature data set with 3 classes. Then, I perform LDA to reduce the dimensionality to 2. How can I create a biplot for the LDA?

My understanding of biplot (I may be completely wrong) is simply a projection of the original features in the hyperplane (or line) of the dimensionality reduction. So, for example, using Python scikit-learn, can I simply perform the following?

from sklearn.discriminant_analysis import LinearDiscriminantAnalysis
lda = LinearDiscriminantAnalysis(n_components=2)
X_lda = lda.fit_transform(X_std,y) #X_std is input data matrix X standardized by Standardscaler, y is a vector of target values
org_features = np.identity(3)
proj_features = lda.transform(org_features)


Then, just connect 0,0 to the 3 points in proj_features to get the 3 arrows corresponding to the 3 original features?

Update:

I am still looking for confirmation of the code. For now, I am just interpreting the three points obtained from the product of 3D identity matrix and the LDA projection matrix as the change in location in the 2D LDA plane as I change the value of each feature by 1 Standard Deviation (all features were standardized by StandardScaler) while keeping the rest of the features constant.

## closed as off-topic by Michael Chernick, mdewey, jbowman, Peter Flom - Reinstate Monica♦Mar 20 '18 at 18:26

This question appears to be off-topic. The users who voted to close gave this specific reason:

• "This question appears to be off-topic because EITHER it is not about statistics, machine learning, data analysis, data mining, or data visualization, OR it focuses on programming, debugging, or performing routine operations within a statistical computing platform. If the latter, you could try the support links we maintain." – Michael Chernick, mdewey, jbowman, Peter Flom - Reinstate Monica
If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

• See my answer and let me know if this is what you want – makis Oct 17 '17 at 15:30

I am going to provide an example but keep in mind that it is not 100% clear that the lda.scalings_ stores the eigenvectors (loadings of the variables). This is something that I am currently trying to verify.

Example using iris data and sklearn:

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn import datasets
import pandas as pd
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
from sklearn.discriminant_analysis import LinearDiscriminantAnalysis

X = iris.data
y = iris.target
#In general a good idea is to scale the data
scaler = StandardScaler()
scaler.fit(X)
X=scaler.transform(X)

lda = LinearDiscriminantAnalysis()
lda.fit(X,y)

x_new = lda.transform(X)

def myplot(score,coeff,labels=None):
xs = score[:,0]
ys = score[:,1]
n = coeff.shape
scalex = 1.0/(xs.max() - xs.min())
scaley = 1.0/(ys.max() - ys.min())
#plt.scatter(xs * scalex,ys * scaley, c = y) #with scaling
plt.scatter(xs ,ys, c = y) #without scaling
for i in range(n):
plt.arrow(0, 0, coeff[i,0], coeff[i,1],color = 'r',alpha = 0.5)
if labels is None:
plt.text(coeff[i,0]* 1.15, coeff[i,1] * 1.15, "Var"+str(i+1), color = 'g', ha = 'center', va = 'center')
else:
plt.text(coeff[i,0]* 1.15, coeff[i,1] * 1.15, labels[i], color = 'g', ha = 'center', va = 'center')
#plt.xlim(-1,1) # use these then you use:plt.scatter(xs * scalex,ys * scaley, c = y)
#plt.ylim(-1,1)
plt.xlabel("PC{}".format(1))
plt.ylabel("PC{}".format(2))
plt.grid()

#Call the function.

# Important: here I think that lda.scalings_ contains the 2 eigenvectors (loadings of the variables). The shape is [n_features,n_components] so [4,2] in our case. So in the myplot function I plot for each variable i, the values that are in [i,0] and [i,1]. All these assuming that the lda.scalings_ contain the eigenvectors.

myplot(x_new[:,0:2], lda.scalings_)
plt.show()


Results • Thanks for the answer! You're right. The values in lda.scalings_ is equivalent to lda.transform(np.identity(4)) – Lam Oct 17 '17 at 16:14
• That is correct. A fast way to verify that the code is correct. – makis Oct 17 '17 at 17:42