# GLM Equation Interpretation

I have developed a glm Poisson model in R and would like to extract the formula so that I can do the computation in another software language. When I write out the equation I am getting different values from the predict function in R and the math I do manually.

summary(model1)

Call:
glm(formula = time ~ dayPart+ weekPart + NumberOfCustomers,
family = poisson(link = log), data = trainDf)

Deviance Residuals:
Min       1Q   Median       3Q      Max
-2.0077  -0.6974  -0.1732   0.6231   2.4361

Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error z value Pr(>|z|)
(Intercept)          5.471287   0.018404 297.291  < 2e-16 ***
DAY_PARTNight        0.177905   0.015721  11.317  < 2e-16 ***
DAY_PARTEvening      0.106609   0.020109   5.302 1.15e-07 ***
DAY_PARTAfternoon    0.082161   0.016076   5.111 3.21e-07 ***
WEEK_DESCWEEKEND     0.083837   0.012819   6.540 6.16e-11 ***
NumberOfCustomers    0.069795   0.002081  33.545  < 2e-16 ***
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

(Dispersion parameter for poisson family taken to be 1)

Null deviance: 1405.299  on 69  degrees of freedom
Residual deviance:   81.949  on 64  degrees of freedom
AIC: Inf

Number of Fisher Scoring iterations: 3


For example I have this row

Morning WEEKDAY 1 (customer) 255 11.463557 (prediction)

calculate:

exp(5.47)+ (0)(1) + (0)(1) + exp(0.069795)*1 = 238

exp(5.47) - the exp of the intercept since I used a log link function
(0)(1) - The coefficient for Weekday since this is the base for WEEK_DESC
(0)(1) - Since morning is base for time of day categorical variable
exp(0.069795) - slope for number of customers.


What is wrong where I'm getting differences between the predict function result of 255 and my math where I calculate 238?

## 1 Answer

You need to solve for the (entire) linear predictor first, then exponentiate. Consider:

exp(5.471287 + 0.177905*0 + 0.106609*0 + 0.082161*0 + 0.083837*0 + 0.069795*1)
#  254.9537


You are summing the exponentiation of 5.47 and the exponentiation of 0.069795, instead of exponentiating the sum of 5.47 + 0.069795. Because exponentiation is a nonlinear transformation, $f(x+y)\ne f(x)+f(y)$ (cf., Jensen's inequality).

Because this is a Poisson GLiM with a log link, the exponentiation of the intercept is the expected value when all covariates are zero (and the categorical variables are at the reference level). In addition, the exponentiation of a coefficient yields the multiplicative factor by which the expected value will increase with a one-unit increase in the covariate. Thus, in this case you could equivalently do:

exp(5.471287) * exp(0.069795*1)
#  254.9537


or,

exp(5.471287) * exp(0.069795)^1
#  254.9537


But note that you have multiplied here, not added.