Assigning new points to a clustering algorithm is always a bit perplexing because the results of a clustering algorithm are imperfect; they represent a snapshot of a (hopefully good) segmentation of the current data.
How good they generalise to new data and what is the actual definition of good are open questions. Maybe we derive that clustering based on some cluster stability approach, maybe we derived it using some information criterion, maybe we use some heuristic like the GAP statistic or the Davies-Bouldin index; they are many ways. Nevertheless despite the ambiguity of a good clustering, all is not lost as soon as we have clusters, we have classes.
Given a particular clustering segmentation, we can train a robust classifier where we treat the labels we previously assigned during clustering as classes. In that way we can account more intuitively for the non-robustness of the clustering labels. Let me stress, that this will not be perfect exactly because our initial data were not perfect but it will allow us to account naturally for a certain degree of uncertainty. In addition as we expect the clustering we have to reflect "some structure" it is a cheap and straightforward way to encapsulate that structure. Following this rationale, when new points appear, we can use the classifier we trained using the data originally clustered, to predict the classes of the new data have (ie. the cluster they are in). Not only that, but we will be able to explain, to some degree, why we picked that cluster based on the intuition gained from the classifier.
As mentioned in the comments, at some point though we should redo this clustering-classification procedure because the clustering will most probably evolve after we accumulate enough new data. This "evolution" will be first noticed on points that lay close to the border of two clusters. To that extent, a single new point might "pull" the centre of a cluster away from that border-point enough to lead into a change of cluster membership, ie. render our original cluster/class assignment obsolete. When we should retrain is again not well defined; I would suggest as soon as we have computational time or we believe that the underlying structure of our data should have changed substantially (ie. we have concept-drift).