I'm getting my information from: http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-modules/ep/ep713_analyticoverview/EP713_AnalyticOverview5.html It says that in a case-control study, you can not compute the probability of disease in each exposure group because you don't have the total amount of people in your population. But you just made a new population for the case control study - why not use this total as the population total? Of course it's a sample of the population you're really interested in so that introduces sampling bias and error but that is true for the odds ratio as well. So you'd have to say it's the approximation of the true relative risk.
Another argument I've read is that in a case-control study, you haven't really taken a cross-section of the population because you started with a fixed amount of people with the same outcome (=diseased), but the amount of individuals in this group (disregarding noise) is irrelevant: if this group is bigger, the amount of of exposed people grows with the same multiplier as the amount of unexposed people. So when calculating the relative risk (risk exposed group / risk in unexposed group) both the numerator and the denominator grow with the same amount, which then makes no difference in the value of the fraction.
Can anyone explain what I'm missing? All thoughts appreciated.