I am wondering if, instead of "paying for" an A/B test for all hypothesis' (designing an experiment, running it under controlled situation etc), a statistical analysis can be conducted on past data as a "first pass" on a hypothesis. If it shows there is evidence of the hypothesis being true, the A/B test can be designed, and if not you don't need to waste your money.
I cannot seem to find a "full" example of the counterfactual theory (please see reference below) in practice using actual data (for example the aspirin example is interesting but it would be good to see a data set and then what was done in R to derive a conclusion) which may answer this question.
Does anyone have anything like this / can link me to further reading / can share a more concrete example and verify this method does indeed act as a first-pass for an AB test (or have I misunderstood the notes)?
Thank you in advance!
Note: this is not homework I use this technique a lot at work therefore am curious.