I had a discussion today with someone saying that Gaussian Processes are linear models. I don't see in which sense this may be correct. To be clear, here the definition of a linear model is the usual one, i.e., a model which is linear in the parameters. Thus,




are linear, and


is not.

For simplicity, let's consider a Squared Exponential covariance function, and assume that the correlation length, the signal variance and the noise variance are known. Given a design matrix $X$ and corresponding response vector $\mathbf{y}$, the GP prediction at a new prediction point $\mathbf{x}^*$ is

$$\hat{y}(\mathbf{x}^*)=\mathbf{k}_*^T(K+\sigma I)^{-1}\mathbf{y}$$

Now, this estimator is clearly a nonlinear function of $X$ and a linear function of $\mathbf{y}$. The other person insisted that $\mathbf{y}$ is the parameter vector of this model, and thus the model is linear. I don't think this makes any sense: it would mean that the number of parameters of the model depends on the sample size. I think we can at most say that the estimator is a linear function of $\mathbf{y}$, but surely not the statistical model underlying Gaussian Process Regression. Do you agree?

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    $\begingroup$ Have you noticed that the OLS estimator $(X^\prime X)^{-}X^\prime y$ is highly nonlinear in $X$, too? $\endgroup$
    – whuber
    Oct 31, 2017 at 19:43
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    $\begingroup$ @whuber sure, and it's also linear in $\mathbf{y}$, like the GPR estimator. However, I was talking about linearity of the model, not the estimator. I guess the other person confounded the two things. $\endgroup$
    – DeltaIV
    Oct 31, 2017 at 21:58
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    $\begingroup$ Interestingly, a GP regression model is equivalent to (linear) ridge regression if you use a linear kernel. $\endgroup$
    – Kevin Yang
    Nov 1, 2017 at 1:13
  • $\begingroup$ @KevinYang true, but a linear kernel is a degenerate kernel, in that its eigenexpansion is finite (and thus the covariance function is only semidefinite positive, instead than definite positive). Let's consider just strictly positive definite covariance functions: do you think GP regression is a linear model or not? If it is, and you can show me which are the model parameters I would accept it as an answer. However, if the parameters depend on the data set, I don't think we can talk of a linear model...ideally the model is defined independently of the data set. $\endgroup$
    – DeltaIV
    Nov 1, 2017 at 11:25

2 Answers 2


I think the technically correct term to use here is that GP regression is a linear smoother, i.e. its predictions are a linearly weighted combination of past observed outputs. This does not make the model as such linear. For that to be true, the predictions must be a linear function of the inputs. This is only the case with GPs if you use a linear covariance function.


The statistical definition of a model being linear is that the model must be linear in its parameters. Gaussian Process Regression can be defined by using either the function-space view or the weight-space view to reach the formula for the posterior mean and posterior variance.

If we see the weight-space view, we can clearly see that Gaussian Process Regression is indeed a linear model with non linear functions of the inputs. The model is defined as a bayesian linear regression model:

$$ f(\mathbf{x}) = \phi(\mathbf{x})^T \mathbf{w}$$ $$and$$ $$y = f(\mathbf{x}) + \epsilon$$ where:

  • $\mathbf{x}$ denotes the input vector for an input

  • $\phi(X)$ denotes some basis function applied on the input space

  • $\mathbf{w}$ is the weight vector

  • (other symbols defined as usual).

However non-linearity of inputs doesn't affect the linearity of the model itself. Kindly refer to the derivation in the weight-space view section of http://www.gaussianprocess.org/gpml/chapters/RW2.pdf for more information.


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